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[woodcut of John Muir] John Muir Writings

Travels in Alaska

by John Muir (1915)


Index


Adams, Mr., 288.
Admiralty Island, 128, 242.
Alaska, coast scenery, 13-18; length of coast-line, 14; climate, 36-43, 196; fisheries, 214.
Albatrosses, 4.
Alder, 91.
Alexander Archipelago, trip through, 13 et seq.; extent, 14; glacial geology, 16, 17.
Alpenglow, 242.
Apple, wild, 32.
Atmosphere, 37-40, 42.
Auk Glacier, 180, 278.
Auk Indians. See Indians.
Auroras, 314-18.
Axes, 140.


Bear, black, 122.
Bear, brown, 245.
Beaver, 122.
Berg Lake, 296, 299.
Berg-waves, 229, 230.
Berner’s Bay, 165, 178.
Berries, 30, 31. See also Huckleberries and Salmon-berries.
Berry-pickers, 30-33.
Big Stickeen Glacier, 46-48, 103-13.
Birds, 122, 213; at Muir Glacier, 284, 287. See also under species.
Blindness, snow, 306-10.
Brady Glacier. See Taylor Bay Glacier.
Braided Glacier, 296.
British Columbia, visit to, 6-8, 12; along the coast, 13 et seq.
Brooks, Mr., of Juneau, 278.
Bryanthus. 92.
Buck Station, 103.
Buck’s, 47.


California, coast of, 5.
Calypso borealis, 110.
Camp-fires, first Alaskan camp-fire, 22-24; pleasures of, 24; in a can, 302-04.
Canoes, Alaskan Indian, 29, 30; adventures in 192, 193; advantages of travel by, 208; size and equipment, 208.
Cape Fanshawe, 59, 186, 189, 210, 277.
Cape Gardner, 128.
Cape Spencer, 244.
Cape Vanderpeut, 191, 192.
Cape Wimbledon, 243, 258.
Caribou, 84.
"Caribou,” 78.
Caribou Camp, 78.
Carliss, Dr., 236.
Carpenter-shop, night in, 20.
Carroll, Capt., 267, 281.
Carroll Glacier, 154.
Case, Mr., 311.
Cassiar, steamer, cruise, 56-75; trouble caused by salt water in her boilers, 59, 60, 63.
Cassiar gold-mines, 26, 27, 44.
Cassiope, 92, 266, 296.
Cassiope tetragona, 290.
Cedar, Alaska, 237.
Cedar, yellow, 163, 164, 188.
Charley. See Sitka Charley.
Chatham Strait, 116, 128, 135, 270.
Chilcat Glacier. See Davidson Glacier.
Chilcat Indians. See Indians.
Choquette, Mr., 104, 105, 113.
City of Pueblo, steamer, 273, 274.
Climate, of southeastern Alaska, 36-43, 196.
Coal, 11.
Coast Range, excursion up Stickeen River across, 44-50; adventure on a peak of, 50-55; view of from Glenora Peak, 93-96.
Collector of customs, at Wrangell, 23, 31, 32.
Columbia River, 12.
Cross Sound, 244.
Cushing, Mr., of Cleveland, 286.


Dakota, steamer, 3.
Davidson Glacier, or Chilcat Glacier, 116, 166, 167, 278.
Dease Creek, 79.
Dease Lake, 79.
Deer, 122.
Deer Bay, 118.
Defot Creek, 79, 80, 84.
Devil-fish, 188.
Devil’s-club, or panax (Echinopanax horridum), 99, 111, 239.
Dipper. See Ousel.
Dirt Glacier (Glacier Bay), 297.
Dirt Glacier (Stickeen), 48, 97-103.
Divide Glacier, 296.
Dogs, two fine, 78. See also Stickeen.
Douglas Island, 180, 181, 277, 278.
Dundas Bay, 258-61.


Eagle, bald, 213, 284.
Eagle Glacier, 278.
Echiveria, 92.
Esquimault Harbor, 6.


Fairweather Range, 147, 149, 266, 288, 291; sunrise light on, 152, 153.
Farewell Island, 243.
Ferns, on Sum Dum Bay, 224.
Fire, a wonderful camp-fire, 23-24.
Flowers, at Wrangell, 32; on the Cassiar Trail, 81, 83; of Glenora Peak, 90-93; on Sum Dum Bay, 219, 224; near Muir Glacier, 266, 267, 287, 290, 291, 295, 296; at Victoria, 275.
Forests, on eastern flank of Coast Range, 49, 50; on coast, 61, 62; of the Cassiar Trail, 79; on Glenora Peak, 91; reproduction, 123; near Chilcat, 175, 176; of Douglas Island, 180, 181; near Port Houghton Bay, 187, 188; on Stephens Passage, 237; on the islands north of Victoria, 275; a ruined forest, 292, 310, 311.
Fort Wrangell. See Wrangell.
Fraser River, 8.


Geikie Glacier, 144, 158.
George W. Elder, steamer, 286.
Geranium, blue, 91.
Gertrude, steamer, 97.
Girdled Glacier, 296, 299.
Glacial action, in the Alexander Archipelago, 16, 17.
Glacier, Auk, 180, 278; Big Stickeen, 46-48, 103-13; Brady, see Taylor Bay; Braided, 296; Carroll, 154; Chilcat, see Davidson; Davidson, 116, 166, 167, 278; Dirt (Glacier Bay), 2g7; Dirt (Stickeen), 48, 97-103; Divide, 296; Eagle, 278; Geikie, 144, 158; Girdled, 296, 299; Grand Pacific, 148-51, 314; Granite Cañon, 297; Gray, 297; Hoona, 148, 151; Hugh Miller, 147; Muir, 158, 262-70, 279-318; Norris, 277; Pacific, see Grand Pacific; Reid, 154; Taylor Bay, 244-56, 261; Thunder, 193, 194; Toyatte, 204; White, 299; Wrangell, 116.
Glacier Bay, first heard of, 134, 135; discovery, 140-45; exploration, 145-60; age, 159; formation, 60; second visit, 262-70; visit in 1890, 279-318; only trees on shores of, 295.
Glaciers, 57-59, 69; of the Alexander Archipelago, 16; a lesson on, 57, 58; exploring a glacier, 63-68; formation of kettle holes, 106, 155; breaking off rock-fragments, 112; of Glacier Bay, 144-60; apparent luminosity, 157; melting of sea-level glaciers, 159; of Lynn Canal, 164; of Sum Dum Bay, 183, 217, 218, 222, 225-32; near Cape Vanderpeut, 192, 209; of the Taku Fiord, 239-42, 277; adventure with a dog on Taylor Bay Glacier, 246-257; crevasses, 249, 251-56, 304, 309, 310; wells and moulins, 250, 303; a Scandinavian sea-captain on, 274; rolling and grinding of stones on, 298, melting and freezing, 304 305; formation of gravel-beds, 308, 309.
Glenora, 43-45, 50, 89, 90.
Glenora Peak, 90-96.
Goats, mountain, 216, 296, 299, 302.
Gold, 80.
Grand Pacific Glacier, 148-51, 314. Granite Cañon
Glacier, 297.
Granite Island, 307.
Grasses, 84.
Gray Glacier, 297.
Gulls, 4, 15, 38, 292.

Harebell, 91.
Hemlock, 166; an old, 123.
Hemlock, mountain, 175, 295.
Hemlock Mountain, 294.
Hobart Point, 186.
Hoona Glacier, 148, 151.
Hoona Indians. See Indians.
Hootchenoo, 202.
Hootsenoo Indians. See Indians.
Howling Valley, 296.
Huckleberries, 31, 92, 119, 232.
Hugh Miller Fiord, 312, 314.
Hugh Miller Glacier, 147.
Hummingbird, 308.
Hunter Joe, Stickeen Indian, 208, 215, 235, 245.
Hutli Bay, 209.

Ice, industry, 59.
Icebergs, birth, 110, 268, 269, 280-82, 284-86; in Glacier Bay, 144-48, 150, 153-58, 279-82, 290, 292, 293, 312-14; “fossil” icebergs, 155; near Taku Fiord, 181, 82; in Sum Dum Bay, 184, 185, 214-18, 225-32; an iceberg weathered to the form of a cross, 193; at mouth of Wrangell Narrows, 193, 194; near Hutli Bay, 209; difficult navigation among, 215; breaking up, 215, 216; waves caused by, 229, 230; colors, 232, 242; of the Taku Fiord, 240-42, 277; in a lake, 251; from the Muir Glacier, 263, 268, 269; in phosphorescent water, 269; a large berg, 293; in Berg Lake, 296; a narrow escape from crushing, 313.
Icy Bay. See Glacier Bay.
Icy Strait, 116, 135, 243, 270.
Indians, alarmed by a camp-fire, 23, 24; Stickeens at Wrangell, 27-36, berry-picking, 30-33; Stickeens adopt Muir into the tribe, 33, 34; dinner and dance, 33-36; visit to a deserted village, 70-74; totem poles, 72-74; Toltan, or Stick,
Indians, 76, 77; hunting caribou, 84; on the march, 84, 85; Kitty and her crew, 89; two canoe-men, 97, 98, 103; crew of canoe voyage to Chilcat, 115-17, 119, 120, 122-24, 128, 132-36, 140-47, 150, 156, 163, 165, 167, 170, 171, 174-76, 178-83, 185-95; an anxious mother, 115, 116; Kake Indians, 118, 119, 124-27; playing, 119, 120; deer-hunting, 122; on the calls of geese, etc., 122; on wolves, 124; farming, 125; funerals, 125, 178; readiness to receive religious instruction, 126, 127, 130, 137, 161, 162, 172, 198; a crying child, 127, 128; Hootsenoos, 128-33, 173, 178; treatment of children, 129-31, 138, 198; food, 129, 130, 161, 170, 178, 187, 188; a drunken village, 131-33; Chilcats, 134, 161, 164, 165, 167-77; Hoonas, 135-43, 161-66, 210-12, 243, 258-62; dignity, 135-38; Muir’s speeches to, 136, 137, 171, 173, 174; a grasping Hoona, 140; a party of seal-hunters, 141-43; the Hoona guide, 143, 146, 148, 157; making whiskey, 161, 178, 202; a chief’s house, 163; bodies of slaves unburied, 167; reception at a Chilcat village, 169-74; politeness, 169; slaves, 174; Auk Indians, 179-81; Taku Indians, 190, 191, 202-04, 238, 240, 241; physical characteristics, 197; willingness to work, 197; thrift, 197; courage and sense of honor, 197; sympathy, 197, 198; doctrine of atonement, 198-204; Sitkas, 198, 199; self-sacrifice of a Stickeen chief, 198, 199; Chief Shakes and the white man’s religion, 200, 201; Toyatte’s admission to the Church, 201, 202; Toyatte’s noble death, 202-04; crew on trip of 1880, 208, 210-13, 215-18, 220-22, 225, 228-30, 235, 237-39, 245, 261-63, 270; trade, 210; nursing babies, 212; hunting mountain goats, 216; on formation of rain and soil, 221; village at Sum Dum Bay, 233; superstitions about animals, 235-37; a deserted village, 238; two seal-hunters among the icebergs, 240, 241; an offended Hoona 258, 261; a dignified old sub-chief, 259-62; clothing, 260; an instance of politeness, 261, 262; at Muir Glacier, 284, 294.
Island of the Standing Stone, 117.
Islands, formation and glaciation, 275, 276.

Jackson, Dr. Sheldon, 20 and note.
Joe. See Hunter Joe.
John, Stickeen Indian, 115, 117, 119, 120, 124, 128, 136, 141, 142, 150, 165, 170, 171, 173, 174, 183, 186, 189, 195.
Juan de Fuca, Straits of, 6, 8.
Juneau, 277, 278.

Kadachan, Chief, 70, 71, 74; on canoe voyage, 115, 116, 119, 124, 127, 133, 141, 146, 150, 163, 165, 171, 174-76, 194; talks about wolves, 124.
Ka-hood-oo-shough, a Hoona sub-chief, 259-62.
Kake Indians. See Indians.
Kashoto, Hoona chief, 135-39.
Kerr, Mark Brickell, 276.
Kettle holes, 106, 155.
Kiku Strait, 116.
Killisnoo, 130.
Kitty, an Indian woman, 89.
Klugh-Quan, 125.
Klunastucksana, 258-61.
Kupreanof Island, 116.

Lane, Capt. Nat, 55.
Le Claire, a French Canadian, 80-86.
Ledum tea, 189.
Lichens, 118.
Linnaea, 32, 78.
Long Beach, Wash., 274.
Loomis, Mr., on trip to Muir Glacier, 275, 281, 294, 299.
Lynn Canal, 116, 134, 163, 164, 243, 278, 279

McDames Creek, 79.
Marmot, Parry’s, 138.
Marmots, 85, 295. See also Woodchucks.
Mill, quartz-crushing, 277, 278.
Miners, 26, 27, 86; a French Canadian, 80-86; party in Sum Dum Bay, 183, 184, 186.
Missionaries, at Wrangell, 19-21; excursion with, 56-75. See also Young, Rev. Samuel Hall.
Moneses, 243.
Moraines, island, 159; Cape Vanderpeut, 192, 209; of Muir Glacier, 282, 283; of washed pebbles, 298.
Mosses, 121, 209, 244.
Moulins, 250, 303.
Mt. Baker, 10.
Mt. Crillon, 266, 291.
Mt. Fairweather, 266, 281, 291.
Mt. Hood, 10.
Mt. La Pérouse, 266, 291.
Mt. Lituya, 266, 291.
Mt. Rainier, 9, 10.
Mt. St. Elias, 95, 276, 278.
Mountains, an adventure in mountain-climbing, 50-55; actual and apparent height, 279.
Muir Glacier, discovery, 158; second visit to, 262-70; icebergs discharged from, 263, 268, 269; size and drainage area, 264; size of wall, 267, 282; visit in 1890, 279-318; moraines, 282, 283; trees broken off by, 282, 283, 292; rate of speed, 293; sled-trip on, 294-311; crevasses, 304; a drop into a water-filled crevasse, 309, 310.
Muir Inlet, 315.

News, real, 195.
Niles, Prof. William Harmon, 276.
Norris Glacier, 277.
Nunatak Islands, 280, 288, 289, 294, 309, 310.

Olympia, 9.
Olympic Mountains, 8, 9.
Oregon, coast of, 6, 273.
Ousel, water, 185.

Pacific Fiord, 149.
Pacific Glacier, 148-51, 314.
Panax. See Devil’s-club.
Peril Strait, 270.
Phosphorescence, 211, 212, 269.
Pine, contorted, 273.
Pine, tamarac or black, 49.
Point Vanderpeut. See Cape Vanderpeut.
Point Wimbledon, 243, 258.
Porcupines, as food, 179.
Porpoises, 4, 5.
Port Houghton Bay, 186.
Port Townsend, 11, 12, 275.
Portland, Ore., 12.
Prince Frederick Sound, 116, 128.
Prince of Wales Island, 116.
Pseudotsuga douglasii. See Spruce, Douglas.
Ptarmigan, 287, 295, 298, 299.
Puget Sound, 8-12.

Quarry Mountain, 305, 306.
Queen, steamer, trip to Muir Glacier on, 275-81; touches at Glacier Bay again, 292, 293.

Race Rocks, 273.
Raven, 207; eating a tom-cod, 293; two disappointed birds, 300, 301; eyesight, 301.
Redwood, 273.
Reid, Prof. Harry Fielding, 286, 288, 311, 315.
Reid Glacier, 154.
Russell, Mr., of the Geological Survey, 276, 278.

Salmon, 76, 77; in phosphorescent water, 211, 212, a struggling multitude, 23, 214; fishery, 214; canneries, 279. Salmon-berries, 232, 246, 260.
Sea voyage, 3-5.
Sea-captain, a skeptical, 274.
Seals, 150.
Seattle, 11.
Sericocarpus, 92.
Shakes, Chief of Stickeen Indians, 35, 36; attitude towards Christianity, 200, 201.
Shamans, 172, 236.
Sheep, mountain, 165.
Sit-a-da-kay, 143.
Sitka, 18, 270.
Sitka Charley, 115, 117, 119, 134, 140, 141, 143, 150, 159, 165, 175, 178, 189, 195.
Sitka Indians. See Indians.
Sitka Jack, 164, 176.
Smart Billy, half-breed, 208, 215.
Smilacina unifolia, 119.
Snow, at Wrangell, 42, 43.
Snow Dome, 297-300.
Soutchoi Strait, 194, 209.
Spruce, seedlings on a prostrate, 123.
Spruce (Picea alba), 49, 50.
Spruce, Douglas (Pseudotsuga douglasii), 10, 11.
Spruce, Menzies, 237.
Spruce Mertens, 237.
Spruce Sitka, 133, 187; ruins of a forest, 292, 310, 311.
Squirrel, Douglas, 87, 110.
Stephens Passage, 182, 237, 239, 242.
Stick Indians. See Indians.
Stickeen, the dog, in phosphorescent water, 212; enjoying a storm, 244; adventures on a glacier, 246
Stickeen Indians. See Indians.
Stickeen River, 26, 43, 194; excursion up, 44-55; course, 44, 45; second trip up, 76-113.
Strawberries, 246.
Sum Dum Bay, 116, 159, 182-86, 214-34, 278
Sumner Strait, 116.
Sunrise, 37; light on mountaintops, 152, 153.
Sunsets, at sea, 5; in Alaska, 39, 40. Swans, 122.

Tacoma, 10, 11.
Tahoma, 9.
Taku Fiord, 181, 182, 239-41, 277.
Taku Indians. See Indians.
Taku River, 241, 277.
Taverns, along the Cassiar trail, 87, 88.
Taylor Bay, 244-58.
Taylor Bay Glacier, or Brady Glacier, 244, 245, 261; adventure with the dog Stickeen on, 246
Telegraph Creek, 76, 89.
Thibert Creek, 79-81.
Thrush, 61.
Thunder Bay, 209.
Thunder Glacier, 193, 194.
Toltan Indians. See Indians.
Totem poles, 72-74.
Tourists, behavior of, 293.
Toyatte, Stickeen Indian, captain on canoe voyage, 115-17, 120, 24, 127, 128, 133-36, 141, 146, 147, 163, 165, 171, 174-76, 179, 180, 182, 183, 185-87, 189, 191-94; out of humor 165; enmity with Chilcats, 174-76; opinion of the Auk tribe, 179, 180; his noble speech when admitted to the Church, 201, 202; his death for his people, 202-04; his dignity, 204.
Toyatte Glacier, 204.
Trees, at Wrangell, 32; remarkable growth of mosses on, 121, 122; in moraines of Muir Glacier, 282, 283, 292.
Trout, 181.
Tyeen, Captain, Stickeen Indian, 208, 211, 212, 215-18, 220, 235, 262, 263.

Valley, a Yosemite-like, 221-24.
Vancouver, George, 159.
Vancouver Island, 6-8.
Vanderbilt, Mr., a Wrangell merchant, 20, 21, 33, 56, 195, 196.
Vanderbilt, Annie, 21.
Veratrum, 92.
Vetch, 119.
Victoria, B.C., 6-8, 12, 275.

Ward’s, 77, 88.
Washington, coast of, 6, 273.
Water-ousel, 185.
Waterfalls, an interesting fall, 121; in Sum Dum Bay, 222, 223.
Whales, 4, 5, 275.
White Glacier, 299.
Willows, dwarf, 92.
Wilson’s, 78.
Wolves, the Indians’ opinion of, 124; howling, 297.
Wood, “fossil,” 282, 283, 289, 296, 297, 305, 307.
Woodchucks, 287. See also Marmot.
Wrangell, first visit to, 18-46; description, 25-28; weather, 28, 40-43; excursions from, 44-195; a month in, 196; arrival in 1880, 207; departure, 208; visit in 1890, 276.
Wrangell Glacier, 116, 277.
Wrangell Island, 25, 195.
Wrangell Narrows, 69, 193, 276.
Wright, Prof., 291.

Yana Taowk, a Kake chief, 127.
Young, Rev. Samuel Hall, 24, 33, 65, 66, 197, 198; mountain-climbing adventure, 50-55; on canoe voyage to Chilcat, 114-95, passim; preaching to Indians, 126, 127, 130, 136, 161, 171, 173, 180, 188; at the time of Toyatte’s death, 203, 204; on second trip to Glacier Bay, 208, 211, 225, 233, 239, 245, 258, 259, 261, 262.


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