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INDIANS OF THE YOSEMITE

Appendix.

HINTS TO YOSEMITE VISITORS.

Secure stage seats in advance.

Take only hand baggage, unless for a protracted visit. For a short trip, an outing suit and two or three waists, with a change for evening wear, will be found sufficient. The free baggage allowance on the stage lines is fifty pounds.

Men will find flannel or negligee shirts the most comfortable.

In April, May and June wear warm clothing and take heavy wraps. In July, August and September wear medium clothing, with light wraps. In October and November wear warm clothing, with heavy wraps. The nights are cool at all seasons.

Dusters are always advisable, and ladies should provide some light head covering to protect the hair from dust. Sun bonnets are frequently worn.

Short skirts are most convenient.

Divided skirts are proper for trail trips, as ladies are required to ride astride. Heavy denim for skirt and bloomers is very satisfactory. Such skirts can be hired in the Valley.

Waists of soft material and neutral shades are appropriate. Avoid white.

Something absolutely soft for neckwear will be found a great comfort, both by men and women.

Leggings, stout, comfortable shoes and heavy, loose gloves will be found very serviceable.

A soft felt hat is preferable to straw. One that will shade the eyes is best. A cloth traveling cap is the worst thing to wear.

Smoked glasses will sometimes save the wearer a headache.

Except in April, May and November, an umbrella is a useless encumbrance.

If the skin is sensitive, and one wishes to avoid a painful sunburn, the use of a pure cream and soft cloth is preferable to water, and far more efficacious.

A week is the shortest time that should be allowed for a trip to Yosemite. Two weeks are better. The grandeur of the Valley cannot be fully appreciated in a few weeks. Those not accustomed to staging or mountain climbing should make some allowance in their itineraries for rest. Many visitors spoil their visit by getting too tired.

Take a little more money than you think will be needed. You may wish to prolong your stay.

Hunting, or possession of firearms, is not permitted in the Yosemite National Park. Fishing is allowed, and in June and July an expert angler is likely to be well rewarded. Rods and tackle may be hired in the Valley.

There is no hardship, risk or danger in any part of the Yosemite trip. Many old people and children visit the Valley without difficulty.

A knowledge of horsemanship is not needed for going on the trail. The most timid people make the trips with enjoyment. Some of the finest views can only be obtained in this way.

There is a laundry in the Valley.

There is a barber shop.

There is a post office, telegraph, and express.

There is a general store and places for the sale of photographs, curios and Indian work.

Treat the Indians with courtesy and consideration, if you expect similar treatment from them. Do not expect them to pose for you for nothing. They are asked to do it hundreds of times every summer, and are entitled to payment for their trouble.

Kodak films and plates can be obtained in the Valley.

Developing and printing are done in the Valley.

TAKE YOUR CAMERA.

OFFICIAL TABLE OF DISTANCES AND LIVERY CHARGES.

The following rates for the transportation of tourists in and about the Yosemite Valley have been established by the Board of Commissioners to manage the Yosemite Valley and Mariposa Big Tree Grove:

CARRIAGES.

FROM HOTELS OR PUBLIC CAMPS, AND RETURN.

Estimated distance (Round Trip)

Rate for Party of Four or More

Rate For Party of Less Than Four

 

Miles

Each Person

Each Person

To Cascades, Yosemite and Bridal Veil Falls

16.00

$1.50

$2.00

To Mirror Lake

5.82

1.00

1.00

To River View and Bridal Veil Falls

10.41

1.00

1.50

To New Inspiration Point

14.38

2.00

2.50

To Happy Isles

4.00

.50

1.00

To Yosemite Falls

3.00

.50

.75

Continued on next page.

 

SADDLE HORSES.

FROM HOTELS OR PUBLIC CAMPS, AND RETURN.

Estimated distance (Round Trip)

Rate for Party of Four or More

Rate For Party of Less Than Four

 

miles

Each Person

Each Person

To Vernal and Nevada Falls

10.90

$2.50

$3.00

To Yosemite Falls and Eagle Peak

13.18

3.00

3.00

To Glacier Point and Sentinel Dome

11.14

3.00

3.00

To Yosemite Point

10.00

2.50

3.00

To Eagle Peak

13.00

3.00

3.00

To Vernal and Nevada Falls and Glacier Point (Continuous Trip)

19.22

4.00

5.00

To Glacier Point, Sentinel Dome and Fissures

14.00

3.50

3.75

To Old Inspiration Point and Stanford Point

16.00

4.00

4.00

To Vernal and Nevada Falls and Cloud’s Rest (Same Day)

22.00

4.00

5.00

Charges For Guide (Including Horse) When Furnished

 

Free

3.00

 

1. Trips other than those above specified shall be subject to special arrangements between the parties and the stables.

2. Any excess of the above rates, as well as any extortion, incivility, misrepresentation, or riding of unsafe animals, should be reported to the Guardian’s office.

3. All distances are estimated from the Guardian’s office.

By ORDER OF THE BOARD OF COMMISSIONERS.

SUPPLEMENTARY TABLE OF DISTANCES.

FROM GUARDIAN’S OFFICE.

 

MILES

Bridal Veil Fall

4

Yosemite Falls, base

¾

Upper Yosemite Fall, base

2 ¾

Upper Yosemite Fall, top

4 ¼

Little Yosemite Valley

8

Glacier Point (short trail)

4 ½

Glacier Point (via Nevada Falls)

14 ½

Cascades

8

 

INTERPRETATION OF INDIAN NAMES

The Indians had names for all the prominent features of the Yosemite Valley, and these have been variously translated (sometimes with considerable poetic license), and variously spelled. The translations given below are as literal as possible, without embellishment, and are believed to be fairly accurate. The spelling adopted is such as best indicates the pronunciation.

The English names, by which the falls and peaks are commonly known, bear no relation to the Indian names, but were bestowed by the soldiers of the Mariposa Battalion at the time the Valley was discovered. The appropriateness and good taste of most of them are due to Dr. L. H. Bunnell, the surgeon of the expedition.

AH-WAH´-NEE (original name of Yosemite Valley)—“Deep grassy valley.” [Editor’s note: the correct meaning of Ahwahnee is “(gaping) mouth.” See “Origin of the Place Name Yosemite”—dea.]

YO-SEM´-I-TE—“Full-grown grizzly bear.” [Editor’s note: For the correct origin of the word Yosemite see “Origin of the Word Yosemite.”dea]

PO-HO´-NO (Bridal Veil)—“A puffing wind.”

LOI´-YA (The Sentinel)—“A signal station.”

CHO´-LACK (Yosemite Falls)—“The falls.”

CHO-KO´-NI (Royal Arches)—“Canopy of baby basket.” Strictly speaking this name applies only to a deep alcove near the top of this cliff.

YO-WEI´-YEE (Nevada)—“Twisting.”

TO-TAU-KON-NU´-LA (El Capitan)—Named from the To-tau´-kons, or cranes, which used to make their nests in a meadow near the top of this rock.

KU-SO´-KO (Cathedral Rock)—Interpretation doubtful.

PU-SEE´-NA CHUCK´-AH (Cathedral Spires)—“Pu-see-na” means mouse or rat, and might possibly be applied to a squirrel. “Chuck-ah” is a store house or cache.

WAW-HAW´-KEE (Three Brothers)—“Falling rocks.” Pom-pom-pa´-sus, usually given as the Indian name of the Three Brothers, is the name of a smaller rock immediately to the West.

WEI-YOW´ (Mt. Watkins)—“Juniper Mountain.”

TO-KO´-YA (North Dome)—“The basket.”

TIS-SA´ACK (Half Dome)—A character in Indian mythology.

MAH´-TA (Cap of Liberty)—Said to mean “Martyr Mountain.”

PI-WEI´-ACK (Vernal Fall)—Said to mean “Sparkling Water.” [Editor’s note: The correct Ahwahneechee name for Vernal Fall is Yan-o-pah. Pi-wei´-ack refers to Tenaya Lake and was mistakenly transfered as the name for Vernal Fall. Bunnell, Discovery of the Yosemite (1880), p. 207.dea]

LE-HAM´-I-TEE (Indian Canyon)—“The place of the arrow-wood.”

HUM-MO´ (Devil’s Thumb)—“The Lost Arrow.”

AH-WEI´-YA (Mirror Lake)—“Quiet Water.”

TOO-LOO´-LO-WEI-ACK (Illillouette Fall)—Interpretation doubtful.

WAH´-WO-NAH—“Big Tree.” (Now commonly spelled and pronounced Wa-wo´-na.) [Editor’s note: The orgin or meaning of Wawona is unknown. —dea]

HEIGHTS OF YOSEMITE’S WATERFALLS.

 

FEET

Cascades

700

Bridal Veil

940

Ribbon

3,300

Sentinel

3,270

Yosemite (Upper 1,600 ft.; Lower 400 ft.)

2,634

Royal Arch

2,000

Vernal

350

Nevada

700

Illillouette

500

 

YOSEMITE’S PEAKS AND DOMES,

WITH ALTITUDES ABOVE FLOOR OF VALLEY.

(The Valley Floor is about 4,000 feet above sea level.)

 

FEET

Inspiration Point

1,248

El Capitan

3,300

Cathedral Rock

2,679

Cathedral Spires

1,934

Royal Arches

(span) 2,000

The Sentinel

3,100

Sentinel Dome

4,122

Three Brothers

3,900

Eagle Peak

3,900

Yosemite Point

3,220

Glacier Point

3,250

North Dome

3,725

Half Dome

5,000

Cap of Liberty

3,062

Union Point

2,350

Cloud’s Rest

5,912

Mt. Starr King

5,100


[Editor’s note: The following three tables of Indian words were added in the 1907 edition and were not present in the first (1904) edition.]

 

NAMES OF INDIAN NUMERALS.

King-eet´One
O-tee´-catTwo
Tul-o´-catThree
O-´e-sartFour
Mo´-ho"-catFive
Te´-mo"-catSix
Te-tow´-okSeven
Cow-in´-tukEight
El´-e"-wokNine
Ne-ah´-jahTen
Larger numbers are expressed by combinations of these numbers.

 

INDIAN WORDS IN COMMON USE.

Wat-too´The Sun
Co´-maMoon
He-a´-mahDay
Cow-il´-laNight
Tum-aw´-linNorth
Chu´-muckSouth
He´-homeEast
El-o´-winWest
Het-a-poo´-paCold
Wool-tut´-teeHat [sic]
Come´-hawBurn
Chum´-hawDead or Die
Na´-winUp or Above
Hoo´-yaDown or Below
Wool-ar´-neeTo Hunt or Look For
Took´-hahTo Kill
E´-winNow
Oo´-hawBy and Bye
Man´-nikMore
Ut´-teeMuch
Wa´-le-coQuick
Now´-tahTo Steal
Nung´-hahMan
O´-hockWoman
Es-el´-loBaby or Infant

 

NAMES OF THE INDIAN TRIBES PLACED
ON THE
FRESNO AND KINGS RIVER RESERVATIONS
IN 1850 AND 1851.

Wil-tuk´-um-neesTuolumne River
Yo-sem´-i-teesYosemite Valley
Po-to-en´-sees and Noot´-choosMerced River
Chow-chil´-liesChowchilla Valley
Me-´-woosFresno Valley
Chook-chan´-chiesFresno and San Joaquin Rivers
Ho-na´-chesSan Joaquin River
Pit-cal´-chees and Tal-an´-cheesSan Joaquin Valley
Cas-was´-seesFine Gold Gultch
Wa-too´-keees, Wat´-chees, No-´to—no´-tose and We-mel´-cheesKings River
Cow-il´-lees and Tel-um´-neesFour Creeks
Woo´-wells and Tal´-cheesTule Lake


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Online Library: Title Author California Geology History Indians Muir Mountaineering Nature Management