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Tribes of California by Stephen Powers (1877)


Appendix: Linguistics

U.S. GEOGRAPHICAL AND GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF THE ROCKY MOUNTAIN REGION.
J. W. POWELL, in Charge.


APPENDIX.

LINGUISTICS

EDITED BY

J. W. POWELL.



CONTENTS.


Page.
. . .
Vocabularies of the Mutsun Family         535
. . .

COMPARATIVE VOCABULARIES.


In a majority of the following vocabularies, the Smithsonian alphabet has been used; and where it has not, the fact has been noted. For convenience of reference, the following is inserted from Smithsonian Publications, No. 160, "Instructions for Research relative to the Ethnology and Philogy of America, by Geo. Gibbs".

ORTHOGRAPHY.

It is, of course, essential to the proper understanding by others of the words collected, especially in view of general comparisons, that a precise and fixed system of spelling should be used, and this is more so where the usual language of the collector is English than where French or Spanish, as there is far less certainty in the pronunciation of the first than of these last. In English, for instance, four different sounds are given as belonging to the letter a, vis, those in far, fall, fat, fate. As regards the simple vowels, the difficulty can be partly remedied by employing the Spanish or Italian sounds, as given below, and a further advantage will be found in separating the words into syllables, and marking the principal one with an accent, thus: Da-ko'-ta. There are, however, in every language, sounds peculiar to itself, and the different Indian tongues abound in them, many being almost beyond our capacity to imitate and certainly to write, without some addition to the ordinary alphabet. Various systems, contemplating a universal alphabet, or one applicable to all languages, have been devised, each having its peculiar merits; but the great difficulty, never fully overcome, has been to represent intelligibly such unfamiliar sounds without confusing the inquirer with new characters or numerous marks, or, again, by employing several letters to represent a single sound. The alphabet here recommended for adoption, without pretending to remedy these defects, will at least prove an assistance to the collector in the field. Should it be necessary to represent other sounds, not include below, it will be better for him to adopt some arbitrary mark of his own, describing fully its value or meaning.

VOWELS.

A as long in father, and short in German hat (nearly as in English what).
E as long in they ("long a" in face), short in met.
I as long in marine, short in pin.
O as long in go, short in home, whole (as generally pronounced in the
Northern States).
U as long in rule (oo in fool), short in full (oo in good). U as in union,
pure, &c.; to be written yu.
as in all (aw, au, in bawl, taught).
a as in fat.
u as in but (o in love, oo in blood).
AI as in aisle ("long i" in pine).
AU as ow in now, ou in loud.

The distinction of long and short vowels to be noted, as far as possible, by the division into syllables, joining a following consonant to a short vowel, and leaving the vowel open if long. Where this is insufficient, or where greater distinctness is desirable, a horizontal mark above, to indicate a long vowel, a curved mark a short one, thus: ā, au, ē, eu, &c. A nasal syllable, like those found so commonly in French, to be marked by an index, n, at the upper right-hand corner of the vowel; thus on, n, an, un, will represent the sounds of the French on, an or en, in, and un, respectively.

CONSONANTS.

B as in English blab.
C not to be used excepting in the compound ch; write k for the hard
sound, s for the soft.
D as in English did.
F as in English fife.
G as in English gig, never for the soft sound, as in ginger; for this use
always j.
H as in English how, hoe, handle.
J as in English judge.
K as in English kick.
L as in English lull.
M as in English mimic.
N as in English noon.
P as in English pipe.
Q not to be used; for qu write kw.
R as in English rear.
S as in English sauce.
T as in English tight.
V as in English vow.
W as in English wayward.
X not to be used; write ks or gz, according to the sound, in wax, example.
Y as in English you, year.
Z as in English zeal, buzz.
as ng in English singing.
SH as in English shall, shoe.
ZH as z in English azure, s in fusion.
CH as in English church.
TH as in English thin, truth.
DH as th in the, with.
KH a surd guttural aspirate, the German ch in ach, loch, buch, and sometimes
approaching that in ich, recht, bcher.
GH a sonant guttural aspirate (Arabic ghaim); other compounds, like the
clucks occurring in T'sinuk, &c., to be represented by kl, tkl, tlk,
&c., according to their analysis.

. . .

MŪT'-SUN FAMILY.


1.—Mi'-wok.

Collected by Mr. Stephen Powers on Calaveras River, California, from an Indian of the tribe and his wife. The Smithsonian alphabet was used.

2.—Tuolumne.

Obtained by Mr. Adam Johnson, and published in Schoolcraft, Part IV, p. 408. He says it is spoken by several tribes on the Tuolumne River, California. It was copied for comparison by Mr. George Gibbs in Nos. 523 and 526 of the Smithsonian Collections. The original spelling is here given.

. . .

English.1. Mi'-wok.2. Tuolumne.
1Manmi'-wame-wok, pl. me-woom
2Womano'-suhosock
3Boyech-e'-li-chies-a-co
4Girlko-cha'-chio-sote-co
5Infanthe-kin-me-te-co
6Fatherup-hoh-pah-te
7Motheru'-tahoh-tah-te
8My husbandnang-ah-te
9My wifeo-sal
10My son (said by father)an-tchoe
12My daughter (said by father)too-net
14My elder brotherta'-chi (brother)ta-tche (brother)
16My elder sisterte'-te (sister)ta-ta-che (sister)
18An Indianmah-woom
19Peoplemah-woom
20Headhow-nah
21Haire-sock
22Facema-ka'-suhmar-cus-co
24Eartōl-ko'suhtol-co, pl. tol-ca-su
25Eyesun'-tahhoon-teh, pl. hoon-tus
26Noseni'-tohnee-to
27Mouth'-wohah-wook
28Tongueni-pai'-tuhnep-pe-tah
29Teethcotteh, pl. cot-ters
30Beardhah-muck
31Necklo-luc
32Arman-nah
33Handtis'-suhte-such, pl. te-soos
34Fingerstche-ki-e
36Nailssal-lah
37Bodyung-ni-oo (we-mah, breast)
41Legle-pe-tah
42Foothat'-teh
51Houseu'-chuh
53Bowong-a'-leh
54Arrowhoi-ang'-ch
62Sunwa'-tu
73Windkan'-u-mah
74Thundertim-u-le-litim-e-lo
75Lightningwil'-e-pe-pitim-e-la-lah
76Rainnu'-kahnu-cah
77Snowcah-lah
78Firewu'-kehwoo-kah
79Waterkik'-uhkee-kah
80Icesusah
81Earth, landto'-tetwal-leh
87Hill, mountainlem'-meh
88Islandcho-e-lo
89Stone, rocks'-wahlow-wak,
(rock how-wuk)
91Ironlah-wok
93Treela'-mahsu-su
94Woodsu-su
95Leaftar-ta
96Barkto-leche
97Grasshor-sack
98Pinesac-co, you-too,
sang-ac-cu
101Flesh, meatmitche-ay-mi
102Dogchu'-kutchoo-ko
104Bearu-zu'-mai-ti (grizzly)oo-som-mette
105Wolfka'-to-wah (coyote)on-no-pu; (coyote)
hit-te-chu,
po-ho-la
107Deera-wu'-yahoo-we-ah
108Elkhack-ki-ah
109Beaveret-tcha-seh
113Flym'-kehhaw-mock-o-su
115Snakel-a-tehlon-wotte
117Birdchīch'-kuh
122Duck (mallard)wotte-wotte, het-et-tah
125Fishe-'wuhcos-se-mo
126Salmonkos'-u-muh
129Whiteka-la-la
130Blacksu-nu'-nehka-lu-le
131Redyuh-chu'-chihyel-lu-le
133Yellowtche-te-te
134Light greento-to-can-no
135Great, largeo-ja'-nehtaw-taw-callo
136Small, littletūn-chik'-chitau-watto
137Stronghoo-le-na
138Oldhu-mil-sch-kion-no-so
139Youngi-na-tim'-ehhu-ac-ke
140Goodcot-che
141Badus-sette
142Deadtchum-sah
143Aliveoo-tche-atche
144Coldtu-ni-eh
145Warm, hotwool-te-te
148Heni'-hihat-te-mem
153Thatitook
156Whomun-nuck
157Fartot-to
158Nearhi-em
161To-dayeu-in
162Yesterdayo-mach
163To-morrowhe-yan-o
164Yeshoo-et
165Noaw-oo-ta
166Onereng-et-ta
167Twoah-te-co
168Threetol-loc-et-tu
169Fouro-essah
170Fivemah-ho-qua
171Sixtem-mo-qua
172Sevencan-ne-e-qua
173Eightcow-win-tah
174Ninewa-ay
175Tennah-ach-ah
176Elevennach-ach-ah reng-et-to
177Twelvenach-ach-ah ah-te-co
178Twentyreng-e-me-woom
(one person)
183One hundredmasse reng-e-me-woom
(five persons)
184To eatso'-wuhwatcha-oo-nim
185To drinku'-suho-su-mah
186To runhu'-a-tehhoo-watte
187To dancewatchi canta
190To speakli'-wa-kohwatchi lee-wa
191To seesu'-yak
192To killyun'-a-kohwatchi u-nipum
198To walkwu'-neh

. . .


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