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Next: Check ListContentsPrevious: Appendix I: Characteristics

Birds of Yosemite National Park (1954, 1963) by Cyril A. Stebbins and Robert C. Stebbins


APPENDIX II: KEY TO THE YOSEMITE BIRDS

I. CATEGORIES BASED ON COLOR (INCLUDING BLACK AND WHITE)

  (1) BIRDS WITH CONSPICUOUS REDDISH OR SCARLET MARKINGS
  (2) BIRDS WITH CONSPICUOUS ORANGE, CHESTNUT, OR RUSTY MARKINGS
  (3) BIRDS WITH CONSPICUOUS YELLOW OR GREENISH-YELLOW MARKINGS
  (4) BIRDS WITH CONSPICUOUS BLUE MARKINGS
  (5) BIRDS WITH CONSPICUOUS BLACK MARKINGS
  (6) BIRDS WITH CONSPICUOUS WHITE IN TAIL, WINGS, OR BOTH

II. CATEGORIES BASED ON CHARACTERISTICS OTHER THAN COLOR

  (7) BIRDS WITH LINE OVER, UNDER, THROUGH, OR NEAR THE EYE
  (8) BIRDS WITH COLLAR-BAND OR BREAST-PATCH
  (9) BIRDS WITH EYE-RING
(10) BIRDS WITH FORKED TAIL
(11) BIRDS WITH CREST OR PLUME
(12) WOODPECKERS AND OTHER CLIMBERS
(13) BIRDS THAT HOLD THE TAIL ERECT
(14) BIRDS THAT BOB OR TEETER
(15) DUCKS AND DUCK-LIKE BIRDS

HOW TO USE THE KEY: The bird seen should be placed under the most appropriate of these headings. A decision as to size is the next step. The size of the bird is compared with the length of a junco, about 6 inches, Brewer’s blackbird, about 10 inches, or crow, about 18 inches. Descriptions are of male birds in breeding plumage unless otherwise noted.

Since it is often difficult to determine size (length from tip of bill to tip of tail) of the bird in the field, the observer may need to check the identification in two or more size groups.

Birds not easily identified or that fit readily into a number of categories are sometimes described in two or more, categories. Birds easily identified are described but once. Descriptions of birds in the key are not complete. As a check on identification refer to the page indicated for the more detailed description in the text.

Hummingbirds, hawks, and owls do not appear in the key. Those birds are easily recognized as to group, hence reference can be made directly to the descriptions of species (see index) and each account read until identification is made. Certain of the rare Yosemite species have been omitted from the key.

I. CATEGORIES BASED ON COLOR (INCLUDING BLACK AND WHITE)

(1) BIRDS WITH CONSPICUOUS REDDISH OR SCARLET MARKINGS

About size of Junco (6 in.) or smaller

Body reddish; tail slightly forked; tips of bill crossed; chunky— RED CROSSBILL (p. 57)
Head, rump, breast red; tail forked— PURPLE (p. 56), HOUSE (p. 57), or CASSIN’S FINCH (p. 56)
Body dark brown; back of head light gray; wings and rump pinkish; high Sierra— GRAY CROWNED ROSY FINCH (p. 57)

Intermediate between Junco (6 in.) and Brewer’s Blackbird (10 in.)

Head reddish; body yellow; wings and tail black— WESTERN TANAGER (p. 55)
Head, throat, breast reds woodpecker— YELLOW-BELLIED SAPSUCKER (p. 31)
Red patch on wing-bend, otherwise black— REDWINGED BLACKBIRD (pp. 53, 54)
Foreparts and rump rose-red; white wing-bars; tail forked; high Sierra— PINE GROSBEAK (p. 57)

(2) BIRDS WITH CONSPICUOUS ORANGE, CHESTNUT, OR RUSTY MARKINGS

About size of Junco (6 in.)

Crown rusty; black line through eye; breast not streaked— CHIPPING SPARROW (p. 61)
Tail rusty; long, slender, slightly curved bill; white breast— CANYON WREN (p. 44)
Tail rusty; slender legs and beak; nervous twitching of wings; breast spotted— HERMIT THRUSH (p. 45)

Intermediate between Junco (6 in.) and Brewer’s Blackbird (10 in.)

Crown reddish-brown; tail yellowish-green; threat and belly white— GREEN-TAILED TOWHEE (p. 58)
Under parts orange except yellow belly; head black; white in black wings and tail; bill thick— BLACK-HEADED GROSBEAK (p. 55)
Sides reddish-brown; head black; below white; eye orange— RUFOUS-SIDED TOWHEE (p. 58)
Tail rusty; bill thick; breast spotted— FOX SPARROW (p. 62)

About size of Brewer’s Blackbird (10 in.)

Chestnut patch in middle of belly; plume tipped forward— CALIFORNIA QUAIL (p. 19)
Throat and sides with chestnut; long, slender plume tipped backward or upright; mountains— MOUNTAIN QUAIL (p. 18)
Rusty toward base of tail; white tips to tail feathers; white in slender wings; vociferous— KILLDEER (p. 20)
Tail orange-brown; wings bluish in malty; black lines on face— SPARROW HAWK (p. 16)
Breast orange; above dark brown; hill yellow— ROBIN (p. 45)
Breast brownish-orange with black band— VARIED THRUSH (p. 45)

Intermediate between Brewer’s Blackbird (10 in.) and Crow (18 In.)

Lining of wings and under -surface of tail orange; rump white— RED-SHAFTED FLICKER (p. 30)
Tail rusty; soaring flight— RED-TAILED HAWK (p. 14)

(3) BIRDS WITH CONSPICUOUS YELLOW OR GREENISH-YELLOW MARKINGS

Smaller than Junco (6 in.)

A. With Conspicuous Black Markings

Head-cap black; no white in wings and tail; generally yellow— WILSON’S WARBLER (p. 52)
Throat black; head yellow; belly white; wing-bars— HERMIT WARBLER (p. 51)
Crown black; back grayish-green; below yellow— LESSER GOLDFINCH (p. 58)
Yellow spot on rump, head, sides; gray above, streaked with black; white thumb-marks on tail— AUDUBON’S WARBLER (p. 51)

B. Without Black Markings

Above yellowish-green; under parts bright yellow; conspicuous black eyes; very active; spreads tail— IMMATURE or FEMALE WILSON’S WARBLER (p. 52)
Almost entirely yellow; wings and tail dusky— YELLOW WARBLER (p. 50)
Rusty crown-patch; head gray; eye-ring; below yellow— NASHVILLE WARBLER (p. 50)
Below greenish-yellow; above olive-green; obscure orange patch on crown— ORANGE-CROWNED WARBLER (p. 50)
Head and neck slaty; below yellow— MACGILLIVRAY’S WARBLER (p. 52)
Below faint yellow; above olive or gray; eye-ring— HAMMOND’S FLYCATCHER (p. 34)

Intermediate between Junco (6 in.) and Brewer’s Blackbird (10 in.)

Crown golden; generally brown above and light below— GOLDEN-CROWNED SPARROW (p. 62)
Above greenish-yellow; below yellow; wings and tail dusky— FEMALE WESTERN TANAGER (p. 55)
Forehead and line over eye yellow; white patch on black wing; thick bill— EVENING GROSBEAK (p. 56)
Belly yellow; tail black with white outer feathers— WESTERN KINGBIRD (p. 33)

About size of Brewer’s Blackbird (10 in.)

Below yellow; black crescent on breast; white outer tail feathers— WESTERN MEADOWLARK (p. 53)

(4) BIRDS WITH CONSPICUOUS BLUE MARKINGS

About size of Junco (6 in.) or smaller

Head, neck, and back blue; white wing-bar; breast chestnut— LAZULI BUNTING (p. 56)

Intermediate between Junco (6 in.) and Brewer’s Blackbird (10 in.)

Generally blue; tail forked— MOUNTAIN BLUEBIRD (p. 46)
Above blue; breast rusty— WESTERN BLUEBIRD (p. 46)

Intermediate between Brewer’s Blackbird (10 in.) and Crow (18 in.)

Generally blue; head and neck black; crested— STELLER’S JAY (pp. 36, 37)
Generally blue; brown patch on back; not crested— SCRUB JAY (p. 38)
Above blue; blue band on breast; crested— BELTED KINGFISHER (p. 29)
Similar to preceding but sides rusty and two bands on breast— FEMALE BELTED KINGFISHER (p. 29)

Larger than Crow (18 in.)

Above slaty blue but tips of wings darker; long legs and neck (42-50 in.)— GREAT BLUE HERON (p. 7)

(5) BIRDS WITH CONSPICUOUS BLACK MARKINGS

About size of Junco (6 in.) or smaller

Head, neck, and throat black; white outer tail feathers— JUNCO (pp. 60, 61)
Crown and nape black; under parts white; climber— WHITE-BREASTED NUTHATCH (p. 40)
Head black with two white stripes, one above, other below eye; black cheeks— BLACK-THROATED GRAY WARBLER (p. 51)
Throat and head black; cheeks white— MOUNTAIN CHICKADEE (p. 39)

Intermediate between Junco (6 in.) and Brewer’s Blackbird (10 in.)

Conspicuous white stripe along bend of wing; back and wing black with white spotting; head, neck, and breast red— YELLOW-BELLIED SAPSUCKER (p. 31)
Wings with large white patch; red streak on chin and throat; rump white; belly yellow— WILLIAMSON’S SAPSUCKER (p. 31)
White bars across black back; nape red— NUTTALL’S WOODPECKER (p. 32)
Similar to above but without red— FEMALE NUTTALL’S WOODPECKER (p. 32)
Body black; head white; white on wings; nape red— WHITE-HEADED WOODPECKER (p. 32)
White patch down black back; white outer tail feathers with black markings— DOWNY WOODPECKER (p. 33)
Head and breast black; below white; inconspicuous crest— BLACK PHOEBE (p. 34)
Head, neck, throat black; white thumb-marks on tips of outer tail feathers; sides reddish-brown— RUFOUS-SIDED TOWHEE (p. 58)

About size of Brewer’s Blackbird (10 in.)

Back, wings, and tail black; rump and patch in wing white; crown red; throat, forehead, and sides of head white— ACORN WOODPECKER (p. 30)
Entirely iridescent black; iris white; gregarious— MALE BREWER’S BLACKBIRD (p. 54)
Body blackish; eye dark brown; head’ and neck brownish— FEMALE BREWER’S BLACKBIRD (p. 54)
Wings black with white patch; slack bar through eye; hooked beak— SHRIKE (pp. 49, 63)

Intermediate between Brewer’s Blackbird (10 in.) and Crow (18 in.)

Black crescent on breast; red line on side of head; rump white; wing lining orange— RED-SHAFTED FLICKER (p. 30)
Upper parts black; forehead and side of head dull red; breast gray passing to rose on belly— LEWIS’ WOODPECKER (p. 30)
Wings and tail black, marked with white; rest of body gray— CLARK’S NUTCRACKER (p. 39)

About Size of Crow (18 in.) or Larger

Entirely iridescent black; often in flocks; cultivated land— COMMON CROW (p. 39)
Generally black; crest red— PILEATED WOODPECKER (p. 29)

(6) BIRDS WITH CONSPICUOUS WHITE IN TAIL, WINGS, OR BOTH

WHITE IN BOTH WING AND TAIL

Smaller than Junco (6 in.)

Crown black; below yellow; above olive-gray— LESSER GOLDFINCH (p. 58)
Yellowish patch on chin, crown, rump, and on each side; under parts whitish; above bluish-gray— AUDUBON’S WARBLER (p. 51)

Intermediate between Junco (6 in.) and Brewer’s Blackbird (10 in.)

Head black; bill thick; throat and breast orange— BLACK-HEADED GROSBEAK (p. 55)
Head black; eyes red; sides reddish-brown— RUFOUS-SIDED TOWHEE (p. 58)
Long, slender-winged, erratic flyer, active at dusk— COMMON NIGHTHAWK (p. 26)

About size of Brewer’s Blackbird (10 in.)

Black mask; beak hooked— SHRIKE (pp. 49, 63)
Body generally gray; wings and tail black— MOCKINGBIRD (p. 44)
Generally gray; wings and tail with black; high mountains; nasal call— CLARK’S NUTCRACKER (p. 39)
Wings slender; tail rusty; above dark brown; black bands on breast; below white— KILLDEER (p. 20)

Intermediate between Brewer’s Blackbird (10 in.) and Crow (18 in.)

Upper parts brown; yellow below; black crescent on breast— WESTERN MEADOWLARK (p. 53)

WHITE IN TAIL

Smaller than Junco (6 in.)

Yellow patch on rump; white thumb-marks on tips of tail feathers— FEMALE or IMMATURE AUDUBON’S WARBLER (p. 51)
Head, neck, and breast black; back brown; bill yellow— JUNCO (pp. 60, 61)
Head, neck, and breast gray; back brown; bill yellowish— FEMALE JUNCO (pp. 60, 61)
Top of head and nape black; long, slender bill— WHITE-BREASTED NUTHATCH (p. 40)

Intermediate between Junco (6 in.) and Brewer’s Blackbird (10 in.)

Tail-wagging habit; breast streaked— WATER PIPIT (p. 48)
Generally gray; buffy bar in wing— TOWNSEND’S SOLITAIRE (p. 46)
Intermediate between Brewer’s Blackbird (10 in.) and Crow (18 in.)
Central tail feathers long; tail wedge-shaped when spread; pinkish throat and breast— MOURNING DOVE (p. 23)

WHITE IN WING

Intermediate Between Junco (6 in.) and Brewer’s Blackbird (10 in.)

Generally brownish-yellow; bill short, thick; tail forked— EVENING GROSBEAK (p. 56)
Wings swallow-like; tail forked; under parts barred— COMMON NIGHTHAWK (p. 26)
Head white; nape red (not in female); generally black— WHITE-HEADED WOODPECKER (p. 32)
Generally black; rump and belly white; crown red— ACORN WOODPECKER (p. 30)

II. CATEGORIES BASED ON CHARACTERISTICS OTHER THAN COLOR

(7) BIRDS WITH LINE OVER, UNDER, THROUGH, OR NEAR THE EYE

Smaller than Junco (6 in.)

A. One or More Wing-Bars

Above grayish; white line over eye; crown orange, margined by yellow and black— GOLDEN-CROWNED KINGLET (p. 47)
Grayish-brown; white line over eye; yellow tinge on sides— WARBLING VIREO (p. 50)
Above olive-gray; white line from bill to eye-ring— SOLITARY VIREO (p. 49)
Above gray; inconspicuous wing-bars and white line over eye; willows, usually— WARBLING VIREO (p. 50)
Top of head, cheeks, throat black; back slaty gray— BLACK-THROATED GRAY WARBLER (p. 51)
Throat and cheeks black; yellow stripe above and below eye— TOWNSEND’S WARBLER (p. 51)

B. Without Wing-Bars

Black line through eye; crown reddish-brown; tail forked— CHIPPING SPARROW (p. 61)
Throat and head black; cheeks white— MOUNTAIN CHICKADEE (p. 39)
Above grayish-brown, speckled; tail barred; rocky areas; bobs— ROCK WREN (p. 43)
Above speckled, reddish-brown, brightest on tail; throat white; abdomen reddish-brown; bill curved— CANYON WREN (p. 44)
Above brown; tail comparatively long, barred, rounded; tail feathers white-tipped; white line over eye; slander, slightly curved bill— BEWICK’S WREN (p. 43)
Above dark brown; tail very short, barred; bill short— WINTER WREN (p. 43)
Tiny, grayish-brown bird; inconspicuous white nape; short tail— PYGMY NUTHATCH (p. 41)
Above bluish-gray; below reddish-brown— RED-BREASTED NUTHATCH (p. 41)

About Size of Junco (6 in.)

Dusky line through eye; broad, buffy breast-band streaked narrowly with black; damp meadows — LINCOLN’S SPARROW (p. 62)
Crown black, broken by three white bands; a white band on each side of head above eye— WHITE-CROWNED SPARROW (p. 61)
Arrangement of bands similar to preceding but white replaced by grayish-brown and black by rusty brown— IMMATURE WHITE-CROWNED SPARROW (p. 61)

Intermediate Between Junco (6 in.) and Brewer’s Blackbird (10 in.)

Head dark brown with white streak over eye; orange line through crown; below pale orange; white in wings and tail— FEMALE BLACK-HEADED GROSBEAK (p. 55)

(8) BIRDS WITH COLLAR-BAND OR BREAST-PATCH

About size of Junco (6 in.)

Dark spot on breast; tail held erect; above brown, streaked below— SONG SPARROW (p. 63)

Intermediate Between Junco (6 in.) and Brewer’s Blackbird (10 in.)

Two black breast-bands; above brown; below white— KILLDEER (p. 20)

About size of Brewer’s Blackbird (10 in.)

Black collar; above slaty brown; orange stripe behind eye— VARIED THRUSH (p. 45)

Intermediate between Brewer’s Blackbird (10 in.) and Crow (18 in.)

Black crescent on breast; back and wings barred; below whitish with black spots; rump white— RED-SHAFTED FLICKER (p. 30)
Breast band; crested; below white; above slaty blue— BELTED KINGFISHER (p. 29)
Similar to preceding but an additional chestnut band across belly— FEMALE BELTED KINGFISHER (p. 29)

(9) BIRDS WITH EYE-RING

Smaller than Junco (6 in.)

Nervous twitching of wings; generally gray, above tinged with green; inconspicuous scarlet patch on top of head; wing-bars— RUBY-CROWNED KINGLET (p. 47)
Above gray; line from bill to eye-ring; wing-bars; below white— SOLITARY VIREO (p. 49)
Top and sides of head slaty; faint, chestnut head-cap; above olive-green— NASHVILLE WARBLER (p. 50)
Eyelids white; foreparts slaty; belly yellow— MACGILLIVRAY’S WARBLER (p. 52)

About size of Junco (6 in.)

Above brown; wing-bars; breast yellowish— HAMMOND’S FLYCATCHER (p. 34)

Larger Than Junco (6 in.)

Eye-ring huffy; breast speckled; above uniformly gray-brown; below whitish except buffy on breast— SWAINSON’S THRUSH (p. 47)
Above grayish-brown; below pale orange— FEMALE ROBIN (p. 45)
Breast spotted with black; back brown, speckled with whitish— IMMATURE ROBIN (p. 45)
Narrow buffy bar running length of extended wing; generally gray; white on edge of outer tail feathers— TOWNSEND’S SOLITAIRE (p. 46)

(10) BIRDS WITH FORKED TAIL

Smaller than Junco (6 in.)

Black line through eye; crown reddish-brown— CHIPPING SPARROW (p. 61)
Streaked above and below; yellow in wings and outspread tail— PINE SISKIN (p. 57)

About size of Junco (6 in.)

Above brown; dye-ring; under parts yellowish— HAMMOND’S FLYCATCHER (p. 34)
Body generally reddish; wings and tail dusky; tips of bill crossed— RED CROSSBILL (p. 57)
Wings slender and pointed; above dark except white patches on rump; below white— VIOLET-GREEN SWALLOW (p. 37)
Above greenish-blue; below white— TREE SWALLOW (p. 37)
Above brown; chin, throat, and breast grayish-brown— ROUGH-WINGED SWALLOW (p. 37)

Intermediate Between Junco (6 in.) and Brewer’s Blackbird (10 in.)

Above brownish-gray; white rump-tufts— OLIVE-SIDED FLYCATCHER (pp. 35, 36)
Under parts dull yellow; generally grayish above; wing-bars— IMMATURE WESTERN TANAGER (p. 55)
Generally brownish-black; throat and stripe along belly white; forages in air— WHITE-THROATED SWIFT (p. 27)
Entirely blue, lighter beneath— MOUNTAIN BLUEBIRD (p. 46)
Generally brownish; rump, tail, and wings bluish; below tending toward white— FEMALE MOUNTAIN BLUEBIRD (p. 46)

About size of Brewer’s Blackbird (10 in.)

Above mottled; white band midway between tip and bend in long, slender wings— COMMON NIGHTHAWK (p. 26)

(11) BIRDS WITH CREST OR PLUME

About size of Junco (6 in.)

Indefinite crest; sits erect with tail on line with back; above grayish-brown; no eye-ring— WOOD PEWEE (p. 35)
Above brownish-gray; eye-ring; whitish wing-bars; tail droops at rest— HAMMOND’S FLYCATCHER (p. 34)
Crested; entirely gray— PLAIN TITMOUSE (p. 40)

Intermediate Between Junco (6 in.) and Brewer’s Blackbird (10 in.)

Inconspicuous crest; head black; belly white; often jerks tail— BLACK PHOEBE (p. 34)
Generally gray; lighter below; often sits high on coniferous stubs— OLIVE-SIDED FLYCATCHER (pp. 35, 36)
Suggestion of crest; under parts white; under side of tail rufous— ASH-THROATED FLYCATCHER (p. 33)

About Size of Brewer’s Blackbird (10 in.)

Plume tipped forward— CALIFORNIA QUAIL (p. 19)
Long, slender, erect plume; chestnut on face and sides; mountains— MOUNTAIN QUAIL (p. 18)

(12) WOODPECKERS AND OTHER CLIMBERS

Smaller than Junco (6 in.)

Long, curved bill; creeps upward on tree trunks— BROWN CREEPER (p. 41)
White line over eye; top of head black; breast rusty— RED-BREASTED NUTHATCH (p. 41)
Crown and nape black; sides of head white; creeps both up and down— WHITE-BREASTED NUTHATCH (p. 40)
Above bluish-gray; black line through eye; tail very short— PYGMY NUTHATCH (p. 41)

About size of Junco (6 in.)

Broad white stripe down back; crown red; inconspicuous black bars on white outer tail feathers— DOWNY WOODPECKER (p. 33)

Intermediate Between Junco (6 in.) and Brewer’s Blackbird (10 in.)

Head, neck, and breast crimson; white stripe along bend of wing— YELLOW-BELLIED SAPSUCKER (p. 31)
Back barred black and white; crown and nape red, wanting in female— NUTTALL’S WOODPECKER (p. 32)
Generally black; rump, wing-patch, belly, and about face white; crown red— ACORN WOODPECKER (p. 30)
Generally black; head white— WHITE-HEADED WOODPECKER (p. 32)

Intermediate Between Brewer’s Blackbird (10 in.) and Crow (18 in.)

Black crescent on breast; white on rump; reddish-orange beneath wings— RED-SHAFTER FLICKER (p. 30)

(13) BIRDS THAT HOLD THE TAIL ERECT

About size of Junco (6 in.) or smaller

Beak curved; tending generally toward brown; active— WRENS (pp. 43, 44)
Brownish on head; eye whitish; relatively long tail; below light gray— BUSHTIT (p. 40)
Below huffy; above brown; guttural, scolding note; relatively long tail— WRENTIT (p. 42)

Larger than Crow (18 in.)

Tail relatively short; generally gray; chunky; wings short— BLUE GROUSE (p. 18)

(14) BIRDS THAT BOB OR TEETER

About size of Junco (6 in.) or smaller

Above dark brown; faint line over eye; tail very short— WINTER WREN (p. 43)
Tail rich, rusty-brown; throat and breast white; bill slender, curved— CANYON WREN (p. 44)
Above grayish-brown, speckled; tail barred; rocky areas— ROCK WREN (p. 43)

Intermediate Between Junco (6 in.) and Brewer’s Blackbird (10 in.)

Below white, dotted’ with round, dusky spots; pebbly shores— SPOTTED SANDPIPER (p. 20)
Body slate-gray; tail short; mountain streams— DIPPER (p. 42)

(15) DUCKS AND DUCK-LIKE BIRDS

These birds are frequently observed at a distance, making it difficult to estimate size; thus they have been keyed out chiefly on the basis of the distribution of black, white, etc.

GENERALLY BLACK OR WITH CONSPICUOUS BLACK OR DARK MARKINGS

A. GENERALLY BLACK (DARK)

Flanks brownish-red; yellow “ear” tufts at sides of head; slender bill (12-14 in.)— EARED GREBE (pp. 6, 7)
White of bill contrasting with black of head; moves head back and forth when swimming (13-16 in.)— AMERICAN COOT (pp. 19, 20)

B. NOT GENERALLY BLACK BUT WITH CONSPICUOUS BLACK (DARK) HEAD MARKINGS

a. Head Solid Black (Real Or Apparent)

White collar; breast chestnut; blue in wing (20-25 in.)— MALLARD (pp. 8, 9)
Breast pure white; back white with dark area down middle; bill broad at tip (17-21 in.)— SHOVELER (p. 10)
Bill blue; black head, neck, and upper breast; back whitish (15-16 in.)— SCAUP (p. 11)
Back and breast black; white mark in front of wing; bill bluish-gray with whitish band at base and near tip (15-18 in.)— RING-NECKED DUCK (pp. 10, 11)
Long, slender, hooked, red bill; most of wings and under parts white; upper back black (21-27 in.)— COMMON MERGANSER (p. 13)

b. With Black (Dark) Markings But Head Not Solid Black

Head and neck black; white bib extending up on cheeks; large bird (23-42 in.)— CANADA GOOSE (pp. 8, 9)
Head dark brown (may appear black); long, slender neck; long, pointed central tail feathers (26-30 in.)— PINTAIL (p. 9)
Crested; two narrow white lines on side of head; white bib (18-20 in.)— WOOD DUCK (pp. 10, 11)
Black on throat; arching neck; narrow, snake-like head; expert diver; bill crossed by black band (12-15 in.)— PIED-BILLED GREBE (pp. 6, 7)
Size small (7-8 in.); top of head and bar back of eye dusky; back streaked with black and white — WINTER PLUMAGED ADULT or IMMATURE NORTHERN PHALAROPE (p. 22)
Size small (8-10 in.); top of head and bar back of eye dusky; upper parts ash-gray— WINTER-PLUMAGED ADULT or IMMATURE WILSON’S PHALAROPE (p. 21)

GENERALLY WHITE OR WITH CONSPICUOUS WHITE (LIGHT) MARKINGS

A. GENERALLY WHITE (LIGHT)

Primaries black; large bill with conspicuous yellow pouch, orange at base (5 ft.)— WHITE PELICAN (p. 6)

B. NOT GENERALLY WHITE BUT WITH CONSPICUOUS WHITE ON HEAD

White bib extending up on cheeks; remainder of head and neck black; large bird (23-42 in.)— CANADA GOOSE (pp. 8, 9)
Broad white crown-patch; white flanks contrasting with black stern (18-22 in.)— AMERICAN WIDGEON (p. 10)
Broad white crescent in front of eye; large blue area in wing (14-16 in.)— BLUE-WINGED TEAL (p. 9)
Two narrow white lines on side of head; white bib; upper breast reddish-brown (18-20 in.)— WOOD DUCK (pp. 10, 11)
White cheeks; top of head’ black; general rusty color (13-16 in.)— RUDDY DUCK (p. 12)

BIRDS WITH CONSPICUOUS RUSTY, REDDISH-BROWN, OR CINNAMON MARKINGS

A. ENTIRE BIRD CHIEFLY RUSTY OR REDDISH-BROWN

Bill blue; cheeks white; top of head black; tail often held erect (13-16 in.)— RUDDY DUCK (p. 12)
Head and neck dark cinnamon; wings brown with large patch of blue (15-17 in.)— CINNAMON TEAL (p. 9)

B. NOT GENERALLY RUSTY; REDDISH-BROWN COLOR RESTRICTED TO HEAD, NECK, OR BOTH

Head and neck reddish-brown; back and sides apparently white; long sloping forehead (20-23 in.)— CANVASBACK (pp. 10, 11)
Crested; throat white; bill long, slender, hooked (21-27 in.)— FEMALE or IMMATURE COMMON MERGANSER (p. 13)
Size small (7-8 in.); whirling habit; head sooty; sides of neck rusty; eye-ring white— FEMALE NORTHERN PHALAROPE (p. 22)
Size small (8-10 in.); top of head and stripe down neck ash-gray; rich chestnut on lower neck; whirling habit— FEMALE WILSON’S PHALAROPE (p. 21)

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