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In the Heart of the Sierras by James M. Hutchings (1888)

Table of Contents.

CHAPTER I. is an Epitome of the Voiced Impressions of Eminent Personages concerning Yo Semite.


CHAPTER II. Causes Leading to the Discovery of Yo Semite. The Unparalleled Influx of Gold Miners; Jealously of the Indians; Breaking out of Hostilities; Official Testimony of Their Cruelties and Murders; Mustering in of the First Company of Volunteers; Initiative Conflict with the Foe.


CHAPTER III. How and When Discovered. Formation and Organization of the Mariposa Battalion; Its Line of March; Placed in Charge of the U.S. Scene of Hostilities; Peace Messengers Sent to the Indian Villages; Numbers of the Different Tribes; A Portion of the Hostiles Accept the Proferred Terms; First Intimation of the Existence of Such a Place as the Yo Semite Valley; Capture of an Indian Village; Interview of the Old Indian Chief, Ten-ie-ya, with the Officer in Command; The Yo Semites Defiant; An Expedition Resolved Upon against Them; Yo Semites Met upon the Way; The Yo Semite Valley First Seen by White Men.


CHAPTER IV. The Name, “Yo Semite.” Its Origin and Meaning; Legendary Tradition Concerning It; Why Spelled Yo Semite, instead of Yosemite.


CHAPTER V. Close of the Indian Campaign. Flight of the Yo Semite Indians; Captives taken; Start for the Reservation, but all Escape in a Single Night; New Campaign Resolved upon; Three of Ten-ie-ya’s Sons Captured; The Indians Lure Their Pursuers into a Trap; Escape of a Prisoner; Ten-ie-ya’s Youngest Son Shot Dead; Capture of Ten-ie-ya; His Attempted Escape, and Speech; Surprise of an Indian Village at Lake Ten-ie-ya; Naming of the Lake; March for Yo Semite; End of the Mariposa Indian War.


CHAPTER VI. Early Historical Incidents. Indians Leave the Reservation; Prospecting Miners Murdered in Yo Semite; the U. S. Expedition against the Indians Returns without Capturing or Killing an Indian; Approximate Extermination of the Yo Semite Tribe by the Monos; Death of Ten-ie-ya. The Last Chief of the Yo Semites; End of Major Savage.


CHAPTER VII. The First Tourist Visitors to Yo Semite; Difficulties to be Surmounted; Old-time Mining Scenes; Indian Guides Secured for Yo Semite; Origin of the Nomenclature “Bridal Veil Fall;” Discovery of Vernal and Nevada Falls; The First View Ever Published of Yo Semite.


CHAPTER VIII. Early Development and Progress at Yo Semite. Construction of Trails; Pioneer Hotel Building, and Hotel Keepers; The Old Hutchings House; The Pioneer Photographer of Yo Semite.


CHAPTER IX. Its First Winter Visitor. Rumors of Snow-drifts Half Filling It; Exploratory Excursion There; Storm Bound; Voyage Down the Flooded Merced River; Two Shipwrecks; Hotel on a Cruise; Unsuccessful Return; Second Attempt to Visit It; A Perilous Journey of Eleven Days Alone; Six Days Wallowing through Snow; A Look into Paradise; Antics of a Grizzly Bear; Successful Termination of the Journey.


CHAPTER X. Early Day Reviewals. Primitive Method of Transporting Supplies; Mysteries of Packing; Intelligence of Mules; Enormous Weights Packed; A Procession of Oddities; Pack Train Snowed In; Human Help and Brandy Carry Timely Aid; Pioneer Methods of Obtaining Lumber; Annual Number of Tourist Visitors; Influential Helpers in the Cause; Need of India-rubber Adaptability in Accommodations; Progressive Improvements Carried On.


CHAPTER XI. Cabin Homes at Yo Semite Lamon’s Cabin; Biographical Outline of James C. Lamon; His Lonely Residence There for Two Winters; His Supposed Murder; The Hutchings Cabin; Winter Employments and Experiences; Pleasant Occupation the Secret of Human Happiness; The Orchard and Strawberry Patch; Entrance of the Angel of Sorrow; In Memoriam.


CHAPTER XII. Congressional and State Enacements Concerning Yo Semite. Act of Congress Granting Yo Semite Valley to the State; Governor’s Proclamation Appointing Its Initial Board of Commissioners; Official Acceptance of the Grant; Adverse Action Towards the Settlers; State Action in Their Behalf; An Incidental Digression; The Settler’s Case before Congress; Reprehensible Representation in the U. S. Senate; Mistaken “Public Policy;” Adverse Rulings of the Supreme Court; Magnanimity of the State Towards the Settlers.


CHAPTER XIII. Journey and Routes to Yo Semite in Outline. The Seven Routes to the Valley and Big Trees; About Personal Baggage; A Word to Parties Camping; Camping Outfit in Detail; Tents and Their Arrangements.


CHAPTER XIV. The Main or Trunk Route towards Yo Semite. Excitements at the Wharf; Crossing the Bay; Alcatraces (Alcatraz) Island; Angel Island; Mt. Tamalpais; Goat Island; Oakland Pier, and Its Elegant Waiting Room; Way-Stations; Wild Oats; The C. P. R. R. Monster Transfer Boat Solanao; Straits of Carquinez; Martinez; Popular Amusements of Native Californians; Monte del Diablo; Lanthrop, and Its Diverging Railroads.


CHAPTER XV. Bay and River Routes to Yo Semite. Scenes at the Wharf; The golden Gate; Fort Point; Islands, En Route; Bays of San Pablo and Suisun; Salmon Fishing on the Sacramento and San Joaquin Rivers; Mosquitoes; Tules on Fire; Productiveness of Tule Lands; Arrival at the Stockton Wharf.


CHAPTER XVI. The Milton and Calaveras Big Tree Route. Table of Distances; The City of Stockton; Heavy Freight Enterprises; Deepest Artesian Well in the State; The Various Strata passed through When Boring It; Railroad Ride to Milton; The Stage and Its Drivers; Kind of Country Passing Over; The Mining Village of Murphy’s; How and When the Big Trees Were First Discovered; Road to the Calaveras Grove; Its Commodius Hotel; The Original Big Tree and Its Stump; Walk through the Grove; The South Grove, and Its Trees; Ride Down to Murphy’s; The Newly Discovered Cave There; Calaveras County Caves, and Natural Bridges; Drive through the Mining District; Sonora and Its People; Chinese Camp.


CHAPTER XVII. The Big Trees in General Their Classification and Naming; Why named Sequoia; Their Distribution, Probable Age, and Rapid Growth; Durability of the Timber; Fossilized Big Trees Found.


CHAPTER XVIII. The Berenda Route Railroad Ride to Berenda, thence to Raymond; Table of Distances; The Horned Toad and Its Habits; The Gambetta Gold Mines; Grant’s Sulphur Springs; Wawona with Its Hotel and Proprietors; Hill’s Art Studio; Drive to and through the Mariposa Big Tree Grove; Remarkable Size and Characteristics of Its Trees; Wawona Point; The Fresno Grove; A Bear Hunt; The Chil-noo-al-na Falls, and Mrs. Cook’s Poem; Signal Peak; Sublime View of the Sierras Therefrom; Other Points of Interest at Wawona; Scenes on the Way to Yo Semite; The Glorious View from Inspiration Point.


CHAPTER XIX. The Madera Route to Yo Semite. Its Historic Indian Association; Table of Distances; The Town of Madera; The V Lumber Flume; Lassoing and Branding of Cattle; Coarse Gold Gulch; Town of Fresno Flats; Forest Scenes.


CHAPTER XX. The Coulterville Route Towns of Modesto and Merced; Table of Distances; Rolling Country; Fossils; The Road Runner; Tarantulas, and Their Enemy; The Stupendous Gold-bearing Mother Vein; Coulterville; Dudley’s Ranch; Bower Cave; Construction of the Coulterville and Yo Semite Turnpike; Scenery on the Road; Pilot Peak; The Merced Grove of Big Trees; View from Buena Vista Gap; The Great Cañon of the Merced River.


CHAPTER XXI. The Mariposa Route Mariposans the First Whites to Enter Yo Semite; Table of Distances; Mining Scenes by the Way; Various Methods of Mining for Gold; California Quail; A Boy That “Didn’t Know Nuffink;” The Red-headed Woodpecker; Mr. Horace Greeley’s Description of a California Forest; His Terrible Ride to Yo Semite.


CHAPTER XXII. The Milton and Big Oak Flat Route to Yo Semite. Table of Distances; Milton’s; The Reservoir House; Copperopolis; Table Mountain; Goodwin’s; Chinese Camp; Moffitt’s Bridge; Priest’s Hotel; Big Oak Flat; Hamilton’s; Crocker’s; Tuolumne Grove of Big Trees; Crane Flat; Foretaste of Grand Scenes; Crossing the Snow Belt in Spring; Horses on Snow-shoes; Look into the Merced Cañon; Magnificent View of Yo Semite Valley from the Big Oak Flat Road.


CHAPTER XXIII. Scenes to Be Witnessed from the Floor of the Valley. The Ride up It; What the Yo Semite Valley Is; Theories about Its Formation; The Fissures; Eroding Action of Glaciers over a Mile in Thickness; Uncertain Time of the Glacial Period; Natural Phenomena; Trails Built to Grand Scenic Standpoints; The Three Hotels and Their Landlords; Sinning’s Cabinet Shop; Art Studios; Photo Establishments; Store; Mrs. Glynn’s; Livery Stables; Guides; Public School; The Yo Semite Chapel; The Guardian; Forest Trees, Shrubs, Flowers, and Ferns of Yo Semite; Trout Fishing; Basis of Measurements; Tables of Distances; Legend of the Lost Arrow; Yo Semite Falls; Mirror Lake; Legend of Tu-tock-ah-nu-lah; Old Moraines; The New Hotel; Doings of a “Cyclone;” Rocky Point; The Three Brothers; El Capitan; The Ribbon Fall; Enchantment Point; Picturesque Road to Cascade Falls; The Pohono Bridge and Avenue; Bridal Veil Fall; Indian Dread of “Pohono;” Curious Phenomena; The Cathedral Spires; Profile, or Fissure Mountain; The Sentinel.


CHAPTER XXIV. Manners and Customers of the Indians. Indian Tom, His Life Being Saved Induces Him to Tell All That He Knows about His Race; The Indian Camp; Present Number of Indians; Acorns Their Staple Breadstuff; How Prepared for Food; Other Edible Luxuries; Fandangos; Religious Beliefs; Burning of Their Dead.


CHAPTER XXV. To Vernal and Nevada Falls. The Anderson Trail; Register Rock; Subline View from the New Bridge; The Vernal Fall; Delightful Ride up the Trail; The Cap of Liberty and Nevada Fall; Snow’s “Casa Nevada;” Eleven Feet of Snow; Diamond Cascade; "Taking a Bawth” on the Silver Apron; Emerald Pool; Scene from the Top of the Vernal and Nevada Falls; The Ladders; Fern Grotto.


CHAPTER XXVI. Grizzly Peak, Half Dome, and Cloud’s Rest. Ascent of Grizzly Peak by Mr. Chas. A. Bailey; The Dangerous Yet Compensating Climb; Early Futile Attempts to Ascend the Half Dome; Anderson’s Perseverance Crowned with Success; The View Therefrom without Its Counterpart on Earth; Others Who Have Climbed It; The Rope Torn Down by an Avalanche; Thrilling Adventure of Two Young Men When Engaged in Replacing It; The marvelously Comprehensive View of the Sierras from Cloud’s Rest; The Way Thither over Old Moraines, and Past Glacier-polished Mountain-sides; The “Umbrella Tree” Near the Top of Nevada Fall; The Wonderful “Snow Plant” of the Sierras.


CHAPTER XXVII. Glacier Point and its Galaxy of Glories. The Glacier Point Trail and Its Builder, James McCauley; Remarkable Scenes on the Way; Union Point; The Agassiz Column; Moran Point; The Sierras from McCauley’s Porch; Startling View from Glacier Point; Derrick Dodd’s Tough Hen Story; Sentinel Dome; Ascent of Mt. Starr King; Sugar Loaf Shape of the South Dome from the Glacier Cañon Trail; The Too-lool-we-ack Fall and Cañon; Picturesque Road from Chinquapin Flat to Glacier Point.


CHAPTER XXVIII. The Upper Yo Semite Fall, Eagle Peak, Lake Ten-ie-ya and High Sierra. Columbia Rock, and Transport Point; Wonderful Changes and Effects of the Falling Water Beneath the Upper Yo Semite Fall; The Cave There; Frolics of Yo Semite Creek at the Top of the Fall before making Its Leap Down; Awe-inspiring View from Eagle Peak; Dr. Newman’s Eulogy There; Forest-arched Ride to Beautiful Lake Ten-ie-ya; The Mountains around It; John L. Murphy and His Cabin; A Curious Phenomenon; Miles of Glacier-polished Granite; The Ascent of Mt. Hoffmann; Sources of Yo Semite Creek; Upper Verge of the Timber Line; Soda Springs; Ascent of Mt. Dana; Evidences of Ancient Glaciers Eight Hundred Feet in Thickness on Top of It; Living Glaciers; Inexpressibly Sublime View from the Summit of Mt. Dana; Ascent of Mt. Lyell; Its Large Glacier; Sources of the Tuolumne and Merced Rivers; Scenes on the Way When Returning to Yo Semite.


CHAPTER XXIX. The Seasons at Yo Semite Valley. The Best Time to Visit It; Its Captivating Dress in Autumn; Winter at Yo Semite; The Great Storm and Flood of 1867; The Snow Fall; Kind of Snow-shoes Used; Enchantingly Beautiful Cloud and Snow Effects; Icicles a Hundred and Twenty Feet in Length; An Ice Cone Five Hundred and Fifty Feet in Height; Magical Changes and Brilliant Hues of the Sunlight upon the Falling Water; The End.


Pom-pom-pa-sa! ['Leaping frogs!'—The Three Brothers]

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Online Library: Title Author California Geology History Indians Muir Mountaineering Nature Management