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The Geologic Story of Yosemite National Park (1987) by N. King Huber


REFERENCES AND ADDITIONAL READING

Library

Brewer, W.H. (Farquhar, F.P., ed.), 1930, Up and down California in 1860-1864; the journal of William H. Brewer, Professor of Agriculture in the Sheffield Scientific School from 1864 to 1903: New Haven, Conn., Yale University Press, 601 p.
Fascinating account of Brewer’s excursions with the California Geological Survey, including its first excursion to Yosemite in 1863.

Bunnell, L.H., 1980, Discovery of the Yosemite in 1851: Golden, Colo., Outbooks, 184 p.
Reprinted from “Discovery of the Yosemite and the Indian war of 1851 which led to that event,” first published in 1880. First-hand account of the first entry into Yosemite Valley by white people.

Farquhar, F.P., 1969, History of the Sierra Nevada: Berkeley, University of California Press, 262 p.
Chapters on numerous subjects bearing on Yosemite, including the discovery of Yosemite Valley and the Big Trees by the Walker party.

Hubbard, Douglass, 1958, Ghost mines of Yosemite: P.O. Box 881, Fredericksburg, Tex., Awani Press, 32 p.
History of the Great Sierra Mine north of Tioga Pass and other prospects along the east edge of the park. “Mine” is somewhat of a misnomer because no production was ever achieved, although construction of the Great Sierra Wagon Road, forerunner of the Tioga Road, was an epic of western roadbuilding in 1883.

Hutchings, J.M., 1872, Scenes of wonder and curiosity in California; a tourist’s guide to the Yosemite Valley (2d ed.): New York, A. Roman and Co., 292 p.
Hutchings, a pioneer innkeeper in Yosemite Valley, grandiloquently promoted tourism with such descriptions as that accompanying the frontispiece to this volume.

Muir, John, 1912, The Yosemite: New York, Century Co. [reprinted 1962 by Doubleday & Co., New York, Natural History Library N26, 225 p.]
Includes his graphic description of a rock fall in Yosemite Valley, triggered by the 1872 Owens Valley earthquake.

Reid, R.L., ed., 1983, A treasury of the Sierra Nevada: Berkeley, Calif., Wilderness Press, 363 p.
An excellent collection of tidbits, including Muir’s description of the discovery of his first “living glacier” and the text of the Yosemite Grant to the State of California.

Russell, C.P., 1957, One hundred years in Yosemite; the story of a great park and its friends: Yosemite National Park, Calif., Yosemite Natural History Association, 195 p.
History of Yosemite from its discovery through 1956, with a detailed chronology appended. Later editions have an expanded chronology.

Whitney, J.D., 1865, Geology, volume I, Report of progress and synopsis of the field work, from 1860 to 1864: Geological Survey of California, 498 p.
Includes a description of the California Survey’s first excursion to Yosemite in 1863.

Whitney, J. D., 1870, The Yosemite guide-book: Cambridge, Mass., Harvard University Press, 186 p.
Popular reprint of “The Yosemite Book” that appeared in a very limited edition in 1868 because of the inclusion of original photographic prints by Carleton E. Watkins and W. Harris. This book was the first of its kind, with the object “to call the attention of the public to the scenery of California, and to furnish a reliable guide to some of its most interesting features, namely, the Yosemite Valley, the High Sierra in its immediate vicinity, and the so-called ‘Big Trees.’” That it did!

Geology

Much of the geologic history in the cited publications is outdated, except in the most recent technical ones, especially with respect to the timing of geologic events, including the uplift of the Sierra Nevada. Nevertheless, they contain much descriptive information of value and are cited in that regard.

Alpha, T.R., in press, Sketches of Yosemite National Park from Glacier Point, Sentinel Dome, and Mount Hoffmann: U.S. Geological Survey Miscellaneous Field Studies Map MF-1888 (black-and-white ed.). [Editor’s note: 1987—dea]
Views of Yosemite physiography from three popular vantage points. Multicolored edition is published by the Yosemite Institute.

Balogh, Richard, 1977, Where water flowed “uphill” on Pothole Dome: Yosemite National Park, Calif., Yosemite Natural History Association, Yosemite Nature Notes, v. 46, no. 2, p. 34-39.
Description of the effects of subglacial stream action on Pothole Dome.

Bateman, P.C., 1983, A summary of critical relations in the central part of the Sierra Nevada batholith, California, U.S.A., in Roddick, J.A., ed., Circum-Pacific plutonic terranes: Geological Society of America Memoir 159, p. 241-254.
The most comprehensive technical summary of the geology of the Sierra Nevada batholith to date.

Bateman, P.C., in press a, Constitution and genesis of the central part of the Sierra Nevada batholith: U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper. [Editor’s note: U.S. Geological Survey Open File Reports: 88-382, 284 p. (1988)—dea]
A technical report that summarizes the rationale for separating and naming individual plutonic-rock units and intrusive suites in the central Sierra Nevada, including the Yosemite area. This report supersedes that by Bateman (1983).

Bateman, P.C., and Chappell, B.W., 1979, Crystallization, fractionation, and solidification of the Tuolumne Intrusive Series, Yosemite National Park, California: Geological Society America of Bulletin, pt. 1, v. 90, p. 465-482.
Technical analysis of the geology of the Tuolumne Intrusive Suite (formerly called the “Tuolumne Intrusive Series”).

Bateman, P.C., and Wahrhaftig, Clyde, 1966, Geology of the Sierra Nevada, in Bailey, E.H., ed., Geology of northern California: California Division of Mines and Geology Bulletin 190, p. 107-172.
Though written before the advent of the concept of plate tectonics, this article remains the best general descriptive summary of the geology of the Sierra Nevada.

Cameron, Robert, 1983, Above Yosemite, with a text by Harold Gilliam: San Francisco, Cameron and Co., 144 p.
Superb collection of color photographs of Yosemite as seen from the air, many illustrating geologic features as well as beautiful scenery.

Fryxell, Fritiof, ed., 1962, François Matthes and the marks of time; Yosemite and the High Sierra: San Francisco, Sierra Club, 189 p.
Collection of geological essays by François Matthes, written for a lay audience.

Hill, Mary, 1975, Geology of the Sierra Nevada: Berkeley, University of California Press, 232 p.
Geologic introduction to the Sierra Nevada in non-technical language.

Hill, Mary, 1984, California landscape, origin and development: Berkeley, University of California Press, 262 p.
Describes in nontechnical language the geologic processes that contribute to landscape development, with many examples selected from the Sierra Nevada.

Huber, N.K., 1981, Amount and timing of late Cenozoic uplift and tilt of the central Sierra Nevada—evidence from the upper San Joaquin River basin:
U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1197, 28 p. Concludes that the late Cenozoic uplift was relatively continuous rather than episodic and that the current uplift rate at Deadman Pass west of Mammoth Lakes is about 1 1/2 inches per 100 years, a figure that in this volume has been extrapolated to Mount Dana.

Jones, W.R., 1976, Domes, cliffs, and waterfalls; a brief geology of Yosemite Valley: Yosemite National Park, Calif., Yosemite Natural History Association, 21 p.
Nicely illustrated booklet, with brief geologic summary.

Jones, W.R., 1981, Ten trail trips in Yosemite National Park: Golden, Colo., Outbooks, 78 p.
Includes a description of a hike up Mount Hoffmann, with comments on the geology along the way.

Jones, W.R., 1981, Yosemite, the story behind the scenery (revised ed.): Las Vegas, Nev., KC Publications, 48 p.
Beautifully illustrated book on geologic and other natural-history subjects.

Matthes, F.E., 1930, Geologic history of the Yosemite Valley, with an appendix on The granitic rocks of the Yosemite region, by F.C. Calkins: U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 160, 137 p.
A classic study in glacial geology. Some of its conclusions have been challenged, but it remains the best source of descriptive material on the glaciation of Yosemite.

Matthes, F.E. (Fryxell, Fritiof, ed.), 1950, The incomparable valley; a geologic interpretation of the Yosemite: Berkeley, University of California Press, 160 p.
An eloquent version of Matthes’ classic study, expressly written for the lay reader.

Osborne, Michael, 1983, Granite, water and light; waterfalls of Yosemite Valley: Yosemite National Park, Calif., Yosemite Natural History Association, 48 p.
Outstanding photographs, focusing on the waterfalls. Brief geology.

Russell, I.C., 1889, Quaternary history of Mono Valley, California: U.S. Geological Survey Annual Report 8, p. 261-394 [reprinted 1984 by Artemisia Press, P.O. Box 119, Lee Vining, CA 93541].
Russell blends science with prose so vivid that this report is essential reading for anyone with an interest in the Mono Basin, Mono Craters, and the glaciers of the adjacent High Sierra, both present and past. Illustrated with etchings and the superb cartography of Willard D. Johnson (see fig. 81 of this volume). Glacial Lake Russell, which occupied the Mono Basin during the Tioga Glaciation, was so named in recognition of this pioneering work.

Schaffer, J.P., 1983, Yosemite National Park—a natural-history guide to Yosemite and its trails (2d ed.): Berkeley, Calif., Wilderness Press, 274 p.
An excellent trailguide, with brief commentaries on the geologic features along many routes.

Sharp, R.P., 1960, Glaciers: Eugene, Oregon System of Higher Education, Condon Lecture Publications, 78 p.
An illuminating discussion of glaciers for the nonspecialist.

Geologic Maps

These maps show details of geology not possible to include in this volume, and together with yet unpublished maps they form the foundation upon which I have constructed the geologic story.

Alpha, T.R., Huber, N.K., and Wahrhaftig, Clyde, 1986, Oblique map of Yosemite National Park, California: U.S. Geological Survey Miscellaneous Investigations Series Map I-1776.
This map depicts Yosemite’s landforms as viewed looking down toward the northeast at an angle of 30°. It is an enlarged and more detailed version of figure 6 in this volume.

Alpha, T.R., Wahrhaftig, Clyde, and Huber, N.K., in press, Oblique map showing the maximum extent of 20,000-year-old (Tioga) glaciers, Yosemite National Park, California: U.S. Geological Survey Miscellaneous Investigations Series Map I-1885.
This map depicts the Tioga icefield and associated valley glaciers as viewed looking down toward the northeast at an angle of 30°. It is an enlarged and more detailed version of figure 67 in this volume.

Bateman, P.C., in press b, Pre-Tertiary bedrock geology of the Mariposa 1° x 2° quadrangle, central Sierra Nevada, California: U.S. Geological Survey Miscellaneous Investigations Series Map. [Editor’s note: Publication I-1960 (1992)—dea]
This geologic map shows the bedrock geology with Cenozoic volcanic rocks and surficial deposits stripped off so as to concentrate on the plutonic rocks of the Sierra Nevada batholith and associated metamorphic rocks. All but the north one-fourth of Yosemite National Park lies within the limits of this map.

Bateman, P.C., in press c, Geologic map of the Bass Lake quadrangle, west-central Sierra Nevada, California: U.S. Geological Survey Geologic Quadrangle Map. [Editor’s note: Publication GQ-1656 (1989)—dea],

Bateman, P.C., Kistler, R.W., Peck, D.L., and Busacca, A.J., 1983, Geologic map of the Tuolumne Meadows quadrangle, Yosemite National Park, California: U.S. Geological Survey Geologic Quadrangle Map GQ-1570, scale 1:62,500.

Bateman, P.C., and Krauskopf, K.B., in press, Geologic map of the El Portal quadrangle, west-central Sierra Nevada, California: U.S. Geological Survey Geologic Quadrangle Map. [Editor’s note: Publication MF-1998 (1987)—dea],

Calkins, F.C., 1985, Bedrock geologic map of Yosemite Valley, Yosemite National Park, California, with accompanying pamphlet by N.K. Huber and J.A. Roller: U.S. Geological Survey Miscellaneous Investigations Series Map I-1639, scale 1:24,000.

Chesterman, C.W., 1975, Geology of the Matterhorn Peak 15-minute quadrangle, Mono and Tuolumne Counties, California: California Division of Mines and Geology Map Sheet 22, scale 1:48,000.

Chesterman, C.W., and Gray, C.H., Jr., 1975, Geology of the Bodie 15-minute quadrangle, Mono County, California: California Division of Mines and Geology Map Sheet 21, scale 1:48,000.

Huber, N.K., 1983, Preliminary geologic map of the Pinecrest quadrangle, central Sierra Nevada, California: U.S. Geological Survey Miscellaneous Field Studies Map MF-1437, scale 1:62,500.

Huber, N.K., Bateman, P.C., and Wahrhaftig, Clyde, compilers, in press [Editor’s note: 1989—dea], Geologic map of Yosemite National Park and vicinity, Calilfornia: U.S. Geological Survey Miscellaneous Investigations Series Map I-1874, scale 1:125,000.

Huber, N.K., and Rinehart, C.D., 1965, Geologic map of the Devils Postpile quadrangle, Sierra Nevada, California: U.S. Geological Survey Geologic Quadrangle Map GQ-437, scale 1:62,500.

Keith, W.J., and Seitz, J.F., 1981, Geologic map of the Hoover Wilderness and adjacent study area, Mono and Tuolumne Counties, California: U.S. Geological Survey Miscellaneous Field Studies Map MF-1101-A, scale 1:62,500.

Kistler, R.W., 1966, Geologic map of the Mono Craters quadrangle, Mono and Tuolumne Counties, California: U.S. Geological Survey Geologic Quadrangle Map GQ-462, scale 1.62,500.

Kistler, R.W., 1973, Geologic map of the Hetch Hetchy Reservoir quadrangle, Yosemite National Park, California: U.S. Geological Survey Geologic Quadrangle Map GQ-1112, scale 1:62,500.

Peck, D.L., 1980, Geologic map of the Merced Peak quadrangle, central Sierra Nevada, California: U.S. Geological Survey Geologic Quadrangle Map GQ-1531, scale 1:62,500.

Wahrhaftig, Clyde, in press, Glacial map of Yosemite National Park and vicinity, California: U.S. Geological Survey Miscellaneous Investigations Series Map.
Map showing the maximum extent of Tioga-age glaciers and the distribution of glacial moraines of various ages. It provides the technical background for figure 67 in this volume (Tioga icefield and valley glaciers).


glacial cirque and Mount Dana


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