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One Hundred Years in Yosemite (1947) by Carl P. Russell


CHRONOLOGY


The following outline of the history of the Yosemite region cites the original sources of information used in preparing this book. References are to the pages of publications and manuscripts appearing in the bibliography which follows. Items cited frequently are abbreviated:

SCBSierra Club Bulletin, 1893 to date.
USNPSAnnual Report, United States National Park Service.
USWDAnnual Report of the Chief of Engineers, United States War Department.
YNPReport of the Acting Superintendent, 1882-1914, Yosemite National Park.
YNHA Yosemite Nature Notes, Yosemite Natural History Association, 1922 to date.
YVCBiennial Report, Yosemite Valley Commissioners, 1867-1904.

*

CHRONOLOGY, WITH SOURCES

1776

Garces entered Tulare Valley and named the interior range “Sierra de San Marcos.” Bancroft, 1884, p. 291; Farquhar, 1928, p. 56.

Name “Sierra Nevada” applied to mountains that now carry the name, by Padre Pedro Font. Font, map; Farquhar, 1928, p. 55.

1806

Moraga Expedition explored lower course of Merced River and gave it the name “Merced.” Richman, p. 465; Farquhar, 1928, p. 58.

1826

Jedediah Smith brought first party of trappers from the East. Crossed near Cajon Pass in November. Dale, p. 183; Merriam, 1923, p. 228.

1833

J. R. Walker crossed present Yosemite National Park with a party of trappers. Leonard, Z., p. 174; Bancroft, 1885, p. 390; Farquhar, 1942, pp. 35-49; Watson, p. 57.

1841

Bartleson party was first of immigrants. Crossed Sonora Pass and probably saw Calaveras Grove. Bidwell; Bancroft, 1886, p. 268.

1844

First wagons brought across the Sierra by Stephens-Townsend-Murphy party. Bancroft, 1886, p. 445.

1847

J. B. Alvarado conveyed “Mariposa Grant” to J. C. Frémont for $3,000. California Supreme Court.

1848

Sierra gold discovery. Tinkham, p. 59.

1850

Rush to “Southern Mines” (Mariposa region). Bunnell, p. 315.

Tuolumne County organized. Coy, 1923, p. 288.

Mariposa County established. Coy, 1823, p. 161.

Joseph Screech discovered Hetch Hetchy Valley. Hoffmann, p. 370.

J. D. Savage forced to abandon trading station at mouth of South Fork of Merced. Bunnell, p. 15.

Indians attack Savage’s Fresno River store and his Mariposa Creek Station, Dec. Bunnell, pp. 22, 23.

1851

Organization of Mariposa Battalion under J. D. Savage. Bunnell, p. 29.

Battalion marched toward mountain stronghold of Indians, March 19. Elliott, p. 179

Chief Tenaya and a part of Yosemite tribe surrendered to advancing whites, March 25. Marvin; Bunnell, p. 52.

Battalion viewed Yosemite Valley from Inspiration Point, March 25. Name “Yosemite Valley” applied. Bunnell, pp. 53, 61.

Yosemite Valley and Merced Canyon to Nevada Fall explored by men with Savage, March 26. Bunnell, p. 72.

Battalion withdrew from Yosemite without having found more Indians, March 27. Bunnell, p. 91.

Second entry to Yosemite made by Capt. John Boling’s Company, May 9. Bunnell, p. 142; Boling, June 12; Kuykendall, p. 9.

First letter dispatched from valley, May 15. Boling, June 12; Kuykendall, p. 9.

Boling captured Yosemite Indians at Tenaya Lake, May 22. Indians were escorted to Fresno Reservation, but in winter Tenaya and his family were permitted to return to the mountains. Boling, June 14; Kuykendall, p. 10; Bunnell, p. 228.

1852

Eight prospectors entered valley May 2, and two were killed by Indians. Russell, 1926, p. 332.

Lt. Tredwell Moore entered Yosemite with detachment of 2d Infantry in June. Bunnell, p. 275; Elliott, p. 172; Hutchings, 1862, p. 75.

Yosemite Indians took refuge with Mono Indians and were not found by soldiers. Elliott, p. 172.

In August Lt. Moore found promising mineral deposits east of Sierra crest. Bunnell, p. 277.

Mariposa Grove discovered by party of prospectors. Elliott, p. 172; Russell, 1926, p. 332; YNHA, 1929, p. 51.

1853

Yosemite Indians left Monos and returned to Yosemite, but stole horses, and Monos nearly annihilated the Yosemites for their treachery. Bunnell, pp. 275, 291; Hutchings, 1862, p. 75. Eyewitness account at variance with Bunnell’s (see p. 47).

A number of parties of prospectors entered Yosemite Valley in the fall of 1853. Bunnell, p. 295.

1854

James Capen Adams visited Yosemite to capture grizzlies, which he trained. Hittell, T. H., p. 196.

1855

J. M. Hutchings organized first party of sightseers to enter Yosemite. First Yosemite pictures made by T. A. Ayres in June. Bunnell, p. 304; Hutchings, 1862, p. 77; Hutchings, 1886, p. 79; YNHA, 1944, pp. 21-25.

Trail from South Fork (Wawona) built to Yosemite Valley by Milton and Houston Mann. Finished in 1856. Bunnell, p. 304; Brockman, 1943, pp. 53-54.

Galen Clark engaged in surveying ditch to supply water to Mariposa Frémont Grant. Foley, p. 108.

First house, a shack, built in Yosemite Valley by surveyors, including Bunnell. (Use of Yosemite Valley as a reservoir contemplated.) Bunnell, p. 304; Country Gentleman; Whitney, 1870, p. 18.

1856

“Coulterville Free Trail” from Bull Creek to Yosemite built by G. W. Coulter and Bunnell. Bunnell, p. 315.

T. A. Ayres made second trip to Yosemite and matte more pencil drawings. Bunnell, p. 310; Farquhar, 1926, p. 111; Ayres.

“Lower Hotel,” first permanent structure, built by Walsworth and Hite at base of Sentinel Rock. Bunnell, p. 309.

1857

Rush of miners from Tuolumne, over Mono Trail, to Mono Diggings; Tom McGee, of Big Oak Flat, perhaps blazed Mono Trail. Bodie Standard, March 1, 1879; Wasson; Hodgdon.

Beardsley and Hite put up canvas-covered house at Cedar Cottage site. Galen Clark settled at what is now Wawona, and with Milton Mann explored Mariposa Grove. Bunnell, p. 310; Bunnell, p. 310; Brace, p. 85; Foley, p. 102.

1858

“Upper Hotel” (Cedar Cottage) built. Operated by Mr. and Mrs. John H. Neal. Bunnell, p. 310. Hutchings, 1886, p. 101. J. L. Cogswell party visited Tuolumne Grove of Big Trees. YNHA, 1937, pp. 60-63.

1859

W. S. Body located mineral deposits in region that later became famous as Bodie. Wasson, p. 5.

First photograph made in Yosemite by C. L. Weed. Subject was Upper Hotel. Hutchings, 1886, p. 101; YNHA, 1929, p. 75. [Editor’s note: Charles Leander Weed’s first photograph, taken June 18, 1859 was of Yosemite Falls, not what was latter known as the Upper Hotel, which was photographed 3 days later—dea.]

James C. Lamon preëmpted and took up permanent residence in Yosemite. Hutchings, 1886, p. 134; Corcoran, 1925.

1860

“Sheepherder Mine” (Tioga Mine) located. Bodie Daily Free Press, September 10, 1881.

California State Geological Survey established, with Prof. Josiah Dwight Whitney in charge. Whitney, 1865, p. ix; Farquhar, 1925, pp. 15-23.

1861

Nine Bactrian camels taken to Nevada urines. Stopped in Calaveras Grove en route. Farquhar, 1925, p. 26.

Mono County established. Coy, p. 182.

C. E. Watkins, pioneer photographer, visited Yosemite Valley. YNHA, 1936, pp. 17-18.

1863

State Geological Survey made expedition to region between upper Merced and Tuolumne rivers. Whitney, 1865, p. 13.

Artist Albert Bierstadt made first trip to Yosemite. YNHA, 1944, pp. 49-51.

1864

J. M. Hutchings took over Upper Hotel, and it became known as “Hutchings House.” Calif. Legis., p. 323; Hutchings, 1886, p. 102.

Sonora Pass wagon road improved to serve Bodie, etc. Wasson. p. 59.

Florence Hutchings was the first white child to be born in Yosemite. Hutchings, 1886, p. 144.

Yosemite Valley and Mariposa Big Trees granted to California as public trust. Grant contained 48.6 square miles. Board of eight commissioners created, Frederick Law Olmsted, chairman. Galen Clark, guardian. U. S. Congress, p. 3444; YVC, 1877, p. 5; Matthews, 1906. pp. 382-387; YNHA, 1946, p. 107.

I. W. Raymond, of Central American Steamship Transit Co., New York City, advocated to Senator Conness of California that the Yosemite Valley and the Mariposa Grove be reserved as a State Grant for public enjoyment. The members of a proposed board of commissioners were recommended by Raymond and Conness jointly. Raymond, 1864; Farquhar, 1926, p. 77.

1866

First appropriation made for administration of Yosemite Grant. Calif Statutes; YVC, p. 7.

1868

John Muir made his first trip to Yosemite. Badè, 1924, I, p. 185; YNHA, 1938; Wolfe, 1945, pp. 117-122.

1869

George F. Leidig built “Leidig’s Hotel” near Lower Hotel. Churchill, 1876, p. 138; Vivian, p. 376; Calif. Legis., pp. 164, 208, 210; Leidig; YNHA, 1930, p. 4.

Mr. and Mrs. A. G. Black removed Lower Hotel and built “Black’s Hotel” on its site. Hutchings, 1886, p. 101.

Edwin Moore acquired half interest in Clark’s station, and it became known as “Clark & Moore’s.” Ellsworth, p. 44; Greenwood, p. 313; Lester, p. 170.

Mountain View House (Peregoy’s) built on Wawona-Yosemite Valley trail. YNHA, 1829, p. 71.

Central Pacific built from Sacramento to Stockton. Ingram.

1870

Albert Snow built trail to flat between Vernal and Nevada falls. Calif. Legis, p. 170; Minturn, p. 264; Lester, p. 197.

Central Pacific built to Modesto. Ingram.

Copperopolis branch of Central Pacific built. Ingram.

Joseph LeConte made his first trip to Yosemite. LeConte, 1903, p. 247.

La Casa Nevada was built by Albert Snow above Vernal Fall. Buckley, p. 25; YNHA, 1930, p. 4.

John Muir explored the Grand Canyon of the ‘Toolumne. SCB, 1924; Farquhar, 1926, pp. 96-97.

1871

Peregoy built a stopping place at Glacier Point. Peregoy Hotel Register.

John Conway built trail from La Casa Nevada to Little Yosemite; he attempted the ascent of Half Dome. Russell, 1926, p. 340.

Central Pacific built to Berenda. Ingram.

Conway started work on Four Mile Trail to Glacier Point (completed in 1872). Russell, 1926. p. 510; Kneeland, p. 82.

Mount Lyell climbed by J. B. Tileston, Aug. 29 (first ascent). Tileston, pp. 89-90.

1872

Central Pacific built to Merced. Ingram.

Stage road built on north side of Yosemite Valley by Conway. Calif. Legis., p. 198; Russell, 1926, p. 310.

Earthquake in Yosemite. Kneeland, p. 88.

1873

Eagle Peak Trail built to foot of Upper Yosemite Fall by Conway. Russell, 1926, p. 310.

J. C. Smith built his “Cosmopolitan” bath house and saloon in Yosemite Valley. Russell, 1931, p. 207; YNHA, 1933, p. 1; Cosmopolitan House.

1874

Coulterville Road built to valley floor. (Known as “J. T. McLeans Road.”) Hutchings, 1886, p. 288; U. S. Senate; YNHA, 1930, pp. 73-74; 1943, pp. 59-60.

Big Oak Flat route completed to Yosemite Valley by Yosemite Turnpike and Road Company. Hutchings, 1886, p. 335; U. S. Senate; YNHA, 1943, p. 60.

Wood road built from “Hutchings” up the south side of the valley. Calif. Legis., p. 340.

State of California purchased private claims in Yosemite Valley. Calif. Legis., p. 351; YVC, 1877-78, p. 16.

1875

George W. Coulter and A. J. Murphy leased former Hutchings property, YVC, 1877-78, p. 10.

Harlow Street erected telegraph line from Sonora to Yosemite Valley. A line was built from Yosemite to Bodie also. Bodie Daily Free Press, January 29, 1881; Hutchings, 1886, p. 358; Morris, Paul.

Wawona Road built to floor of Yosemite Valley. U. S. Senate; YVC, 1874-75; YNHA, 1813, pp. 60-61.

George G. Anderson made first ascent of Half Dome. Hutchings, 1886, p. 457; Leonard, R. M., 1937. p. 40.

Public School provided for Yosemite. Mariposa County, May, 1875; YNP, 1809, p. 50; Hutchings, 1886, p. 355.

Washburn Brothers purchased Clark & Moore’s. Place has been called “Wawona” since. Vivian, p. 370; Stornoway, p. 72.

1876

Sentinel Hotel built by Coulter and Murphy. Known as Yosemite Falls Hotel for many years. Calif. Legis., p. 238; Jones.

John Muir’s first article on devastation of Sierra by sheep was published. Farquhar, 1925, p. 30; Badè, 1923-24, 2:58-59.

1877

J. K. Barnard took over “Coulter and Murphy’s” (Sentinel Hotel). Blake, p. 119; YVC, 1877-78, p. 14; Jones.

1878

John L. Murphy settled at Tenaya Lake (exact date doubtful). Jackson, pp. 109-171; Hutchings, 1886, p. 481.

High Sierra country surveyed by Lieut. M. M. Macomb of Wheeler Survey. USWD.

Bodie and Lundy mining excitement reached height. Tioga came into prominence. Bodie Daily Free Press, Dec. 29, 1880; Whitney, H. A.

A. Harris established first public campgrounds in Yosemite Valley. Harris Register; Calif. Legis., p. 232; Hutchings, 1886, p. 355.

Tunnel in Big Tree of Tuolumne Grove made in June. Marshall, p. 341.

Mountain House built at Glacier Point. Gordon-Cumming, p. 174.

1879

Homer District (Lundy) organized. Was discovered by C. H. Nye. Mammoth City Herald, Sept. 24, 1819; Homer Mining Index, 1880.

Yosemite chapel built by Sunday School Union. Hutchings, 1886, p. 355; Glass, pp. 114-118.

1880

Legislation ousted Board of Yosemite Commissioners. New board appointed J. M. Hutchings guardian. YVC, 1880, p. 3.

Charles D. Robinson, artist, maintained studio in the valley (1880-1890). YNHA, 1944, pp. 38-40.

L. H. Bunnell, of Yosemite discovery party, published Discovery of the Yosemite Valley.

1881

Silver found on Mount Hoffmann. Mount Hoffmann Mining District organized, but amounted to nothing. YNHA, 1925, p. 83.

Tunnel cut through Wawona Tree. YNHA, 1925, p. 83.

1882

“Anderson Trail” (Happy Isles to bridge below Vernal Fall) built. Calif. Legis., pp. 311, 367; YVC, 1880-82, p. 5.

Construction of Tioga Road started. (Completed in 1883 at cost of $62,000). Calif. State Mineralogist; U. S. Senate.

Great Sierra Consolidated Silver Mining Company (Tioga Mine) incorporated. Calif. State Mineralogist.

John Conway built road to Glacier Point. Conway.

1883

President Hayes with party of twelve visited Yosemite Valley.

1884

Tioga Mine closed after expenditure of $300,000 and no production. Calif. State Mineralogist.

Mr. and Mrs. John Degnan established bakery and store, the oldest business among Yosemite concessions. USNPS, 1941, p. 9; Degnan, p. 1.

Hutchings removed as guardian, and W. E. Dennison appointed. YVC, 1883-84, p. 14.

1885

Legislature appropriated $40,000 to build Stoneman House. YVC, 1885-86, p. 6.

John B. Lembert took up homestead in Tuolumne Meadows. Stornoway, p. 64; Farquhar, 1925, pp. 40-41; YNP, 1903, p. 23.

“Echo Wall Trail” (Nevada Fall to Glacier Point) built. YVC, 1885-86, p. 9.

Log Cabin built in Mariposa Grove. YVC, 1885-86, p. 10.

1886

John L. Murphy preëmpted 160 acres at Tenaya Lake. YNP, 1903, p. 23.

1887

Mark L. McCord made guardian. YVC, 1887-88.

A tramway to Glacier Point considered and surveyed. Calif. Legis., p. 341.

1888

Stoneman House leased to J. J. Cook. YVC, 1887-88, p. 14; Calif. Legis., pp. 263, 336; Stornoway, p. 24.

Commissioners removed Black’s and Leidig’s hotels. Calif. Legis., p. 210; YVC, 1887-88, p. 17.

1889

Galen Clark again made guardian. YVC, 1888-90, p. 5.

Mirror Lake dam built to increase area of lake. YVC, 1889-90, p. 5.

1890

Yosemite National Park created, Oct. 1. John Muir’s writings were important in bringing this about. YVC, 1889-90, p. 27.

1891

Capt. A. E. Wood, first Acting Superintendent, arrived with federal troops to administer park, May 19; headquarters at Wawona. YNP, 1891, p. 3; YNHA, 1944, p. 54.

First telephones installed in Yosemite Valley. YVC, 1881-92, p. 6.

1892

Sierra Club organized, with John Muir as president, to aid effort to secure federal administration of entire Yosemite region. SCB, 1893.

First plant of trout (rainbow) made in Yosemite by California Fish and Game Commission. YNP, 1893, p. 8; YNHA, 1934, p. 58.

1893

Sierra Forest Reservation established, Feb. SCB, 1896, pp. 257-259.

1894

Capt. G. H. G. Gale made Acting Superintendent. YNP, 1894.

1895

Capt. Alex. Rodgers appointed Acting Superintendent. YNP, 1895.

Wawona fish hatchery erected. Operated by state. YNP, 1895, p. 5.

1896

Stoneman House destroyed by fire, Aug. 24. YVC, 1895-96, p. 9.

Lt. Col. S. B. M. Young appointed Acting Superintendent. YNP, 1896; Farquhar, 1926, p. 109.

First effort made to keep firearms out of park. YNP, 1896, p. 4.

1897

Miles Wallace made guardian. YVC, 1897-98.

Wooden stairs at Vernal Fall removed and replaced by rock steps. YVC, 1897-98, p. 6.

Capt. Alex. Rodgers again made Acting Superintendent. YNP, 1897.

1898

Camps rented to visitors by state. YVC, 1897-98, p. 5.

Archie O. Leonard, first civilian park ranger. YVC, 1897-98, p. 12; YNP, 1898, p. 3.

Both J. W. Zevely, special inspector, and Capt. J. E. Caine were acting superintendents. YNP, 1898.

1899

Lt. Wm. Forse and Capt. E. F. Wilcox were acting superintendents. YNP, 1850.

Curry Camping Company established. Tresidder, D. B.; Tresidder, M. C., MS; YNP, 1908, p. 12.

Chris Jorgensen maintained artist’s studio in the valley (1899-1518). YNHA, 1944, pp. 94-97.

1900

Major L. J. Rucker, Acting Superintendent. YNP, 1900.

Holmes brothers, of San Jose, drove first auto into Yosemite. Holmes.

1901

Camp Yosemite (Lost Arrow) established. YVC, 1901-02, p. 6; YNP, 1908, p. 12; 1910, p. 12; Tresidder, D. B., p. 35.

Major L. A. Craig, Acting Superintendent. YNP, 1901.

First of the annual outings of the Sierra Club took place in Tuolumne Meadows. Farquhar, 1925, pp. 52-53.

1902

Power plant at Happy Isles built by state. YVC, 1901-02, p. 4.

Major O. L. Hein, Acting Superintendent. YNP, 1902.

J. M. Hutchings killed on Big Oak Flat Road near Yosemite Valley, Oct. 31. Foley, p. 6; Godfrey, 1941, MS, p. 14.

Harry Cassie Best established artist studio in valley. (Maintained business until his death, 1936.) YNHA, 1945, pp. 42-44.

1903

Leconte Memorial Lodge built in Yosemite Valley by Sierra Club. SCB, 1904, pp. 66-69; 1905, pp. 176-180.

San Francisco’s first application for use of Hetch Hetchy denied by Secretary Hitchcock, U. S. Dept. of Interior, 1908, 1910, 1914.

George T. Harlow, guardian. YVC, 1903-04.

U. S. Weather Bureau installed instruments in Yosemite. YVC, 1903-04, p. 7.

Lt. Col. Jos. Garrard, Acting Superintendent. YNP, 1903.

John Muir, Theodore Roosevelt, and Gov. George C. Pardee discuss Yosemite Grant recession in Yosemite. Badè, 1923-1924, 2:355.

1904

Major John Bigelow became Acting Superintendent. YNP, 1904.

Arboretum established, and first plans for a Yosemite Museum made at Wawona. YNP, 1904, p. 20; YNHA, 1930, pp. 17-18.

1905

Area of Yosemite National Park reduced. Mount Ritter region and Devils Postpile eliminated. Yosemite Park Commission; YNP, 1905, p. 5; 1906, p. 8.

Capt. H. C. Benson, Acting Superintendent. YNP, 905; SCB, 1925, pp. 175-179.

Yosemite Valley and Mariposa Grove re-ceded to United States. Superintendent’s headquarters (Major H. C. Benson) moved to Yosemite Valley. YNP, 1905, pp. 5-6; 1906, p. 6; Badè, 1923-1924, 2:355. Colby, 1938, pp. 11-19.

Last “hold “up” of a Yosemite stage (Raymond-Wawona run). Yosemite Tourist, 1906.

1907

Yosemite Valley Railroad opened to travel. YNP, 1907, p. 5; Radcliffe; Bartlet. Del Portal, the railroad hotel at El Portal, shown in Williams, p. 143.

Extensive telephone system installed in park. YNP, 1907, p. 8. Yosemite cemetery given permanent marking with boundary of trees. YNHA, 1932, pp. I-4.

1908

Hetch Hetchy rights granted to San Francisco. YNP, 1908, p. 14.

Camp Ahwahnee established at foot of Sentinel Rock by W. M. Sell. YNP, 1908, pp. 11, 12; Tresidder, D. B., p. 37.

Pacific Telephone and Telegraph Co. built telegraph line from El Portal to Sentinel Hotel. YNP, 1908, p. 9.

Supervisor Gabriel Sovulewski, Acting Superintendent, Oct. 25 (to April 27, 1909). YNP, 1909, p. 5.

1909

Major W. W. Forsyth, Acting Superintendent. YNP, 1909.

1910

Death of Galen Clark, March 24, age 96. YNP, 1510, p. 15; 1911, p. 8.

1911

Tenaya Lake Trail completed. YNP, 1910, p. 10; 1911, p. 8.

Devils Postpile made a national monument by President Taft. SCB, 1912, pp. 170-173, 226-227.

Galen Clark Memorial Seat built. YNP, 1911, p. 12.

1912

Yosemite hospital built by U. S. troops. YNP, 1812, p. 12; Tresidder, D. B., p. 157. Sierra Club purchased Soda Springs property at Tuolumne Meadows. Farquhar, 1926, p. 58.

1913

Major William T. Littebrant, Acting Superintendent. YNP, 1913.

Automobiles admitted to Yosemite Valley. YNP, 1913, p. 12.

Raker Act authorized use of Hetch Hetchy Valley as reservoir; approved by President Wilson, Dec. 19. Farquhar, 1926, p. 39; Johnson, R. U., pp. 307-313; Wolfe, 1945, pp. 339-316.

1914

Civilian employees replaced the military in administration of Yosemite. Mark Daniels, first superintendent. USNPS, 1816, p. 4; Calif. State Mineralogist, p. 61.

Museum of Vertebrate Zoölogy, University of California, began 5-year field study of animal life in Yosemite, which culminated in publication of 752-page treatise. Grinnell and Storer; YNHA, 1924, p. 2.

John Muir died in a Los Angeles hospital, December 24. Badè, 1923-1924, II, pp. 390-391.

1915

Parsons Lodge built by Sierra Club in Tuolumne Meadows. SCB, 1916, pp. 84-85.

First appropriation for the John Muir Trail approved by Governor Johnson. Rensch, 1933, p. 484; Wolfe, 1915, p. 364.

Yosemite Lodge established in Yosemite Valley. Tresidder, D. B., p. 87. Stephen T. Mather purchased Tioga Road and presented it to U. S. Government. Farquhar, 1926, p. 94.

Mather became assistant to Franklin K. Lane, Secretary of the Interior. Albright, 1929, pp. 50-51; Cramton, 1929, p. 13.

Yosemite horse-drawn stages replaced by motor stages. Tresidder, D. B., p. 33.

R. B. Marshall made superintendent of all national parks. USNPS, 1916, p. 5.

1916

National Park Service Act passed August 25. Stephen T. Mather made Director. USNPS, 1916, p. 81; 1917, p. 1; Farquhar, 1926, p. 63.

W. B. Lewis made Superintendent of Yosemite National Park. USNPS, 1916; Farquhar, 1926, p. 114.

Tuolumne Meadows Lodge installed; also Tenaya and Merced camps opened. Tresidder, D. B., p. 76.

1917

Stephen T. Mather became first Director, National Park Service. Albright, 1929, p. 12; Cramton, 1929, p. 13.

Glacier Point Hotel completed. USNPS, 1917, p. 59; Tresidder, D. B., p. 61.

Wawona Road and Glacier Point Branch turned over to federal government. USNPS, 1917, p. 62.

Parts of park opened to grazing. USNPS, 1917, p. 153.

Modern school buildings constructed. USNPS, 1920, p. 257.

David A. Curry dies; Mrs. Curry continues operation of Camp Curry. Tresidder, Mary C., DIS.

1918

Cascade power plant completed at cost of $215,000. USNPS, 1917, pp. 61, 143; 1918, pp. 45, 134.

Ledge Trail built. USNPS, 1918, p. 47.

1919

First airplane landed in Yosemite Valley; May 27. Lt. J. S. Kroll, pilot, alone. USNPS, 1919, pp. 183, 190.

LeConte Memorial Lectures instituted. USNPS, 1919, p. 194.

1920

Construction started on all-year highway up Merced Canyon. USNPS, 1920, p. 110.

Rangers’ Club House built. USNPS, 1920, pp. 113, 250.

Yosemite National Park Co. founded. USNPS, 1920, p. 248.

Yosemite educational work started by H. C. Bryant, A. F. Hall, L. H. Miller, and Enid Michael. Yosemite Museum planned. USNPS, 1920, pp. 113, 245, 253; Hall, 1980; YNHA, 1932, pp. 2-3.

California valley elk brought to Yosemite. USNPS, 1920, p. 250; 1821, p. 196.

Big Trees Lodge built at Mariposa Grove. Tresidder, D. B., p. 72.

1921

First Yosemite Museum installations made. USNPS, 1921, pp. 72, 196, 202; Yosemite Park Naturalist, July, 1921; Hall, 1930.

1922

Yosemite Educational Department created. USNPS, 1922, pp. 113, 115; 1923, p. 20.

Yosemite Nature Notes first published (mimeographed through 1924, then printed). YNHA, 1925, p. 1.

1923

Hikers’ camps installed. USNPS, 1923, p. 54; 1924, pp. 37, 109; YNHA, 1923; Tresidder, D. B., p. 80; Adams, 1940, pp. 79-83; Russell, 1925.

Educational Department for all national parks created. Yosemite Park Naturalist; USNPS, 1923, p. 20; 1925, p. 19; 1926, p. 7; Burns, N. J., pp. 4-25.

1924

Hoof and mouth disease epidemic in Yosemite deer. USNPS, 1924, pp. 36, 108; 1925, pp. 6, 93; 1926, p. 14.

New administration center and village developed. USNPS, 1924, pp. 37, 108; 1925, p. 87.

1925

Yosemite Park and Curry Co. formed by consolidation of Curry Camping Co. and Yosemite National Park Co. Tresidder, D. B., p. 37; USNPS, 1925, p. 27.

Yosemite School of Field Natural History organized. USNPS, 1925, pp. 11, 90; YNHA, 1925, pp. 9-10, 16, 66.

Glacier Point branch of Yosemite Museum opened. Yosemite Park Naturalist, June, 1925, YNHA, 1925, p. 55.

1926

All-year highway dedicated July 31. USNPS, 1926, pp. 30, 102.

Yosemite Museum opened, May 29. USNPS, 1924, pp. 8, 105; 1925, pp. 12, 89; 1926, pp. 31, 99; YNHA, 1924, 1926, p. 95.

1927

Ahwahnee Hotel opened by Yosemite Park and Curry Co. USNPS, 1926, pp. 31, 101.

1928

Board of expert advisors, Frederick Law Olmsted, Duncan McDuffie, and John P. Buwalda, appointed by authority of Congress to study and assist in the solution of Yosemite problems. USNPS, 1828, p. 173.

Maria Lebrado, one of the last of the original Yosemite Indians, gives firsthand account of Yosemite Valley discovery. YNHA, 1928, pp. 41-46; 1929, pp. 69-70, 85-86.

Wildlife research in national parks instituted by George M. Wright, of Yosemite naturalist organization. YNHA, 1929, p. 66; Russell, 1939, p. 10; Wright, Dixon, and Thompson.

W. B. Lewis transferred to Washington; became Assistant Director, National Park Service. E. P. Leavitt designated Acting Superintendent. YNP, 1929.

1929

A hospital, which after the death of Assistant Director Lewis, 1930, was named the W. B. Lewis Memorial Hospital, was constructed in Yosemite Valley at cost of $50,000. USNPS, 1929, p. 144.

Col. C. G. Thomson appointed Superintendent. YNP, 1929.

1930

Stephen T. Mather dies, January 22. Story.

“Live Indian Exhibit” instituted on Yosemite Museum grounds; project made possible by the coöperation of the Yosemite Natural History Association.

Maggie Howard, “Ta-bu-ce” of the Monos was engaged to demonstrate modes of Indian life. USNPS, 1930, p. 168; YNHA, 1933, pp. 14-16.

Sugar pine forest on west side of park acquired through private gift and government appropriation. YNHA, 1930, pp. 65-66.

W. B. Lewis died August 28 in Chevy Chase, Maryland. USNPS, 1931.

High Sierra snow surveys organized on consolidated basis. Brockman, 1946, pp. 105 -109; YNHA, 1927, p. 19; Russell, 1928, pp. 36-38.

1931

Marjorie Montgomery Ward presented $4,000 with which to develop a living exhibit of native flowers at the rear of the Yosemite Museum. USNPS, 1931; YNHA, 1931, p. 64; 1932, pp. 4-5.

Research Reserves established (White Mountain, Boundary Hill, and Swamp Lake). USNPS, Master Plan, 1942, Sheet 7, map; YNHA, 1927, pp. 46-48.

Glacier measurements instituted in the Yosemite High Sierra. YNHA, 1934, pp. 44-46; 1935, pp. 9396; 1942, pp. 89-91.

1932

Wawona Basin, 8,785 acres, added to Yosemite National Park. Half of the funds required were donated; the Department of Interior was authorized by Congress to match the donation with federal funds. USNPS, 1932, p. 61.

Mariposa Grove Museum established. USNPS, 1932, p. 63; YNHA, 1932, p. 4.

Big Trees Lodge constructed in Mariposa Grove at Sunset Point. Earlier tent camp eliminated from upper grove. USNPS, 1932, p. 64.

Cosmopolitan House, built in 1843, destroyed by fire, Dec. 8. YNHA, 1933, pp. 1-2.

Sierra Club Rock-Climbing Section organized. Leonard, R. M., 1938, p. ii.

1933

Devils Postpile National Monument placed under supervision of the superintendent, Yosemite National Park. YNHA, 1835, pp. 45-57.

Tule elk herd (27 animals) removed from Yosemite Valley to Owens Valley, east of Sierra. YNHA, 1933, pp. 107-109.

Arno B. Cammerer made Director of National Park Service upon resignation of Horace M. Albright. USNPS, 1933, p. 153.

Wawona Road and tunnel dedicated June 10, 1933. YNP, 1933, p. 1.

“Emergency programs,” C.C.C., C.W.A., and P.W.A. advanced the construction and management projects of the park. Five C.C.C. camps were established at Wawona, Crane Flat, and Eleven Mile Meadow. YNP, 1933, pp. 26-32.

1934

First ascent of Higher Cathedral Spire, April 15; Lower Cathedral Spire, August 25. Leonard, R. M., 1934, p. 178.

Hetch Hetchy water flows into San Francisco. YNHA, 1934, pp. 89-91; YNP, 1935, pp. 11-12.

Radio replaced mountain telephone lines in Yosemite administration. YNP, 1934, p. 11.

Outdoor church bowl in Yosemite Valley improved by C.C.C. YNP, 1934.

1935

Ski house built at Badger Pass by Yosemite Park and Curry Co. YNP, 1936, p. 6.

1936

Thomas Moran art collection acquired by the Yosemite Museum. YNP, 1936, p. 4; YNHA, 1936, pp. 57-64; 1944, pp. 64-68.

Yosemite Museum acquired 198 oil and water-color paintings by the Yosemite artist, Chris Jorgensen. YNP, 1937, p. 7.

First ski ascent of Mount Lyell, March 2, by Bestor Robinson, David R. Brower, Lewis F. Clark, Boynton S. Kaiser, and Einar Nilsson. Brower, 1838, pp. 40-45.

Harry Cassie Best dies in San Francisco, October 14. Virginia Best Adams and Ansel Adams take over operation of Best Studio, Yosemite Valley. YNHA, 1936, p. 88a, back cover; 1945, p. 44.

1937

Lawrence C. Merriam appointed to superintendency in June following death of C. G. Thomson. YNP, 1937, p. 2; YNHA, 1937, pp. 36-38.

1938

Hetch Hetchy Dam enlarged by addition of 85 feet to its height. YNP, 1938, p. 9.

Tenaya Lake High Sierra Camp removed and new camp established at May Lake. YNP, 1938, p. 14.

President Franklin D. Roosevelt visited Yosemite Valley and Mariposa Grove, July 15. YNP, 1939, p. 6.

Sentinel Hotel, River Cottage, and Ivy Cottage torn down in Dec. YNP, 1939, p. 21.

Gabriel Sovulewski died Nov. 29. YNP, 1939, p. 11.

1939

Vegetation type map of the park prepared by Branch of Forestry, National Park Service. USNPS, Master Plan, 1942, two maps and key.

Newton B. Drury appointed to Yosemite Advisory Board, Feb. 24. YNP, 1939, p. 10.

1940

Newton B. Drury appointed Director of the National Park Service in June, when Arno B. Cammerer requested that he be relieved of his duties as Director for reasons of health. USNPS, 1940, p. 204.

Tioga Road, Crane Flat to McSwain Meadows, and Big Oak Flat Road, from Crane Flat to El Portal Road, constructed on modern standards; opened with ceremonies, June 23. YNP, 1940, p. 1. USNPS, Master Plan, 1942.

Cedar Cottage (Upper Hotel) and Oak Cottage razed. YNP, 1941, pp. 3-4; 1942, p. 6.

C. A. Harwell vacated the Yosemite Park Naturalist position Sept. 7. YNHA, 1941, p. 37.

Ski-touring accommodations provided at Ostrander Lake, under slopes of Horse Ridge. YNP, 1941, p. 2.

William E. Colby appointed to membership on Yosemite Advisory Board effective November 15. Maulding, Mrs. J. Atwood.

Mrs. John Degnan, pioneer park operator, died Dec 15. YNP, 1941, p. 9.

1941

Arno B. Cammerer, Director of National Park Service, 1933-1940, died April 30. USNPS, 1942.

C. Frank Brockman appointed Yosemite Park Naturalist, Mar. 27. YNHA, 1941, p. 37.

Bear-feeding programs in Yosemite Valley discontinued. YNP, 1941, p. 3.

Superintendent Lawrence C. Merriam appointed Regional Director, National Park Service, Region Two (Omaha, Nebraska), July 31. Frank A. Kittredge transferred from Grand Canyon National Park to the Yosemite superintendency, Aug. 1. YNP, 1842, pp. 1, 5.

Cosie Hutchings Mills visited Yosemite Valley, Aug. to, after absence of 42 years. YNHA, 1941, p. 111; 1942, pp. 37-40.

1942

Yosemite School of Field Natural History and Junior Nature School discontinued for duration of war. YNHA, 1942, p. 30; YNP, 19.12, p. 7.

Activities of C.C.C. in Yosemite National Park discontinued in July. YNP, 1943, p. 1.

U. S. Army Signal Corps units utilized National Park Service facilities at Wawona and Badger Pass as special summer training schools. YNP, 1943, p. 1; 1944, pp. 1-2; 1945, p. 2.

Armed-forces men who came to Yosemite National Park for recreation or conditioning totaled 23,272 in the fiscal year ending June 30. (This total reached 89,686 during the war years.) YNP, 1943, p. 1; 1944, p. 2.

J. N. LeConte appointed Collaborator, Yosemite Advisory Board. YNP, 1943, p. 2.

1943

Ranger-naturalist program discontinued as a war measure. YNHA, 1943, pp. 46-47.

Death of Dr. H. C. Bumpus, of the National Park Service Advisory Board, June 21. YNHA, 1943, pp. 97-101.

Death of John Degnan, pioneer resident and operator, Feb. 27. Mary Ellen Degnan, daughter, continued operation of Degnan store. YNP, 1943, p. 10.

Death of Mrs. Mabel Sweetman Boysen, longtime operator and resident, May 10. YNP, 1943, p. 11.

Ahwahnee Hotel converted to hospital use by U. S. Navy, June 23 (to Dec. 15, 1945). YNP, 1944, p. 1; YNHA, 1946, p. 15; Yosemite Park and Curry Co., 1946, pp. 1-76.

Death of Chief Ranger Forest S. Townsley, Aug. 11. YNP, 1944, p. 6; YNHA, 1943, p. 75.

1944

Transfer of Acting Chief Ranger John H. Wegner to Sequoia and Kings Canyon national parks. YNHA, 1944, pp. 32-33.

Oscar A. Sedergren appointed Chief Ranger. YNHA, 1944, pp. 37-38.

M. E. Beatty, Associate Park Naturalist, transferred to Glacier National Park, Montana. M. V. Walker appointed vice Beatty. YNHA, 1944, pp. 58, 60.

1945

First consideration given to the removal of some of the physical developments from Yosemite Valley and the establishment of new centers of operations in less precious localities. Vint, 1945.

Elizabeth H. Godfrey, a student and writer of Yosemite history, transferred from Yosemite to Region Four, National Park Service. YNHA, 1945, p. 97.

Meadows and vista restoration program initiated in Yosemite Valley. YNP, 1945, p. 10.

Yosemite Valley Railway abandoned August 27. YNP, 1946, p. 5.

1946

Park Naturalist C. Frank Brockman resigns from National Park Service. YNHA, 1946, pp. 110-111.

Lost Arrow ascended by Jack Arnold, Anton Nelson, Fritz Lippmann, and Robin Hansen, September 2. YNHA, 1946, pp. 113-116; Brower, 1946, pp. 121-122.

Constam T-bar lift for skiers constructed at Badger Pass in fall. YNP, 1947.

1947

Maggie Howard, “Ta-bu-ce,” a principal character in Yosemite Indian demonstration, died at Mono Lake. Kittredge, 1947.


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